The Great Britain is made up of England, Wales and Scotland. Referring to Darlington (2016), the British state had evolved over time since the day in 1066 when William the Conqueror invaded England successfully defeating King Harold of England. However, the Norman dynasty did not conqueror Scotland but managed to conqueror Wales and Ireland. This is the only successful invasion of England. In 1603, the Monarchical England ruled by Queen Elizabeth was succeeded by James King of Scots after the demise of Queen Elizabeth. He moved to Edinburgh as King James I of England.
However, he still managed to control most of the happenings in Scotland. Later Scottish elites ran bankrupt therefore made a scheme to a Union with England and Scotland to make one sovereign state known as the Great Britain with its base in London. Ireland abolished its parliament in 1801 to join the new political entity which was now known as the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. This was however not without rebellions; Southern Irish never recognized this English rule and rebelled in 1916 before gaining independence in 1922.
Darlington (2016) state that the British political system has basically been a struggle to shift power and accountability from an all-powerful king (monarchy) to a national parliament. Over the years, there has been need to have leaders who represent the ordinary people and are accountable to the people, a huge contrast to Kings who considered themselves to have been appointed to power by God and the power is his/her birth right therefore not accountable to ordinary people. Conferring to National Archives (2016), The United Kingdom is now a parliament democracy with a constitutional monarch, with the Queen/King as Head of State while an elected Prime Minister is head of the government.
Darlington (2016) in a short guide to British Political System, state that the most important date in the evolution was in 1215 when King John documented Magna Carta which was to ensure power sharing with the barons. A model parliament summoned by King Edward I which is considered to be the first representative assembly occurred in 1295. This parliament unlike others which were Monarchical had people each representing a given territory or interest.
With this parliament the King had no absolute powers as before, for instance, the King of England before implementation of any new tax had to get the approval from the parliament (Darlington, 2016). The subsequent phase was the introduction of the bicameral parliament which emerged in 1341. Agreeing to United Kingdom Parliament (2016), this type of governance ensures checks and balance in every house. The house of Commons is responsible for granting money by approval of bills that are aimed at raising taxes then this decision has to be approved by the other House of Lords and vice versa.
In the 19th Century the urge to limit the monarch had increased, politically the war between Whigs and Tories was because of these issues (Darlington, 2016). According to About Britain (2014), the author noted that before these two parties came into being, the monarchical parliament was made up of parliament which was composed of aristocrats and very rich men who formed alliances based on their own loyalties and other factors.