Local Area Network and Wide Area Network, TCP-IP Layers, Physical Layer, Signal Transmission, Latency Propagation Time – Essay Example

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The paper “ Local Area Network and Wide Area Network, TCP-IP Layers, Physical Layer, Signal Transmission, Latency Propagation Time” is an affecting variant of an essay on information technology. There are two main types of networks illustrated in the illustration and they are LAN and WAN. LAN (Local Area Network) is a simple network that interconnects computers in a small area or distance usually one or a small number of buildings and is controlled by one network administrator. The network does not rely on the internet for it to function.

The Local area Network illustrated uses Ethernet technology and the switch to interconnect devices on the network to facilitate communication through the forwarding of data. The network qualifies as a LAN because of the switch which acts as a server to the clients, and the router is connected to another network usually through the internet. The LAN uses star topology where the clients are connected to a central node (switch) with a point-point connection. The point-to-point topology is achieved because the clients are indirectly connected to each other by the switch. This is because the client is connected to a central hub which in this case is the switch and all the traffic flows through it before reaching the clients. The WAN (Wide Area Network), on the other hand, interconnects multiple Local Area Networks over large geographical areas to each other using a router for a quick and secure data transfer.

A router and two switches that are interconnected form a WAN. In case of sending a large file to another network, devices on two separate LANS can communicate with each other over the internet and send the file over WAN.

In the illustration given, the WAN is identified through the router that interconnects the two LAN together which is in turn connected to the two switches. All this can be achieved through the use of a router. The WAN topology adapted by this illustration is a star topology where the router is used as the central hub of connecting the two LANs together. The router, in this case, is referred to as the concentrator router which provides a disadvantage of a single failure point. TCP/IP Layers ClientThe application layer is found on the client.

This is because the application layer provides an interface for the user to interact with the server or access a network service such as web chat, web surfing, file transfer, and network data sharing (application program). The client, on the other hand, is computer software or hardware that enables a user to access services provided by a server. SwitchThe internet layer is found on the switch. The internet layer function is to accept packets and deliver them for the network. It involves the Address Resolution Protocol (ARP), ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) protocol, and IP (Internet Protocol).

Just like the network or internet layer, the main role of a switch is receiving incoming packets and forwarding them through another link, a function known as switching and forwarding. The physical layer is also found on switches in terms of RJ-45 connectors RouterThe router acts as an interconnection device where it establishes and terminates connections physically. Therefore it contains the physical layer. The internet layer is also found on the router and is used to forward datagrams across networks and among hosts and also IP datagrams routing (Harvard, 2002, 180).    


Harvard Hunt, C., 2002. TCP/IP network administration (Vol. 2). " O'Reilly Media, Inc.".

Mitra, S.K., and Kuo, Y., 2006. Digital signal processing: a computer-based approach (Vol. 2). New York: McGraw-Hill.

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