Evidence Based Nursing (EBN)Table of ContentIntroductionPolicy context of research and EBPAppraisal of research paradigms Evaluation of aspects of the research process Ethical frameworksData collectionAnalysis ConclusionBibliography/ReferencesI. IntroductionEvidence-based practice is relatively new in nursing. The objectives of this type of practice are to continually develop and strengthen the quality of nursing interventions. It is introduced on in the context of the movement for evidence-based medicine (EBM) and evidence-based practice (EBP). For last two decades it has focused on the identification and consideration of strategies to overcome barriers to EBP. These barriers include substantive variations in nursing practice and nursing results; lack of guidelines for nursing practice; time constraints; limited access to the research literature; lack of skills in clinical appraisal; lack of coordination between the different health care sectors; and lack of skills in information seeking.
On top of this, nurses claim that the prevailing professional ideology emphasises practical skills rather than intellectual knowledge, and that their work environment does not encourage information seeking. Such barriers resulted in different initiatives such as national and international conferences, journals, books, teaching programmes and centres. These activities often share a positive but largely uncritical approach, stating directly or indirectly that EBN is something we must have, and that it is something we must have now.
While the interest among nurses in nursing practice, in education and in research - nationally and internationally - has increased, at the same time many nurses do not embrace EBN with enthusiasm, probably because it appears to hold such limited relevance for their everyday practice needs. Some of the underlying assumptions in EBN and their implications in a selected research issue in the context of evidence based practice (EBP) will be discussed in this paper.
(Law, 2002)II. Policy context of research and EBPGovernment agencies and institutes are actively supporting this new phenomenon. The international journal Evidence-Based Nursing in UK and The Centre for Evidence-Based Nursing (CEBN) in US are proof active support of policy makers for the cause of this new practice. The international journal Evidence-Based Nursing began in January 1998 'as a direct response to a dilemma of practitioners who want to use research, but are thwarted by overwhelming clinical demands, an ever burgeoning research literature, and for many, a lack of skills in critical appraisal.
The journal is published quarterly with the support of the United Kingdom's Royal College of Nursing. It has the aim 'to select from the health related literature those articles reporting studies and reviews that warrant immediate attention by nurses attempting to keep pace with important advances in their profession. (Law, 2002) The Centre for Evidence-Based Nursing (CEBN), part of the Department of Health Sciences at the University of York, is concerned with furthering EBN through education, research and development.
Its research activities are listed on the Centre's home page. Its aims are to generate reliable research evidence for clinical nursing through primary research and systematic reviews of the efficacy of caring methods and nursing interventions; its staff are researching into how nurses in practice use their clinical expertise alongside both research evidence and patient preferences in making decisions; they are also evaluating the impact of teaching EBN on nursing practice and organisations.