The paper “ Abilities Related to Autism Spectrum Disabilities, Real and Perceived Blockers to Inclusion, Strategies to Overcome Blockers to Inclusion ” is a perfect variant of an essay on social science. Autism is a general word that refers to a group of developmental brain disorders that are collectively referred to as autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In Australia, autism spectrum disorders are serious and complex neurodevelopmental disorders that affect approximately one person in every 160 people (Tonge and Brereton 1). The use of the term “ spectrum” is meant to show the wide range of symptoms and levels of disability that children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders can have or develop.
The word “ autism” was used to refer to children who had difficulties in relating to others, had repetitive behaviors, delayed and disordered language, and the drive for sameness. These three symptoms have become central to the diagnosis of ASDs (National Institute of Mental Health 1). There are five disorders that are currently categorized as autism spectrum disorders namely; Autistic disorder, Asperger’ s disorder, Rett’ s disorder, Pervasive development disorders not otherwise specified, and Childhood disintegrative disorder.
There has not been a breakthrough in identifying the exact causes of ASD. Scientists have, however, identified both genetic and environmental factors as causes of ASD. In a situation involving identical twins sharing the same genetic code, where one twin has ASD, the other twin also has the disorder in approximately 9 out of 10 cases. People with certain genetic conditions such as fragile X syndrome are also at a higher risk. The fact that most people with ASD have no family history of the disorder means that random and rare gene mutations increase an individual’ s risk (National Institute of Mental Health 17).
Regarding environmental factors, there are studies on factors such as family medical conditions, the age of parents, and complications during pregnancy. Pregnancy-related factors include where children are born too early or too small and where cesarean delivery is used (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 1). Abilities Related To ASD Autism is a disease with symptoms that vary from one individual to the other. The first extreme is of high functioning people who can fit into the world and get along with other people.
On the other extreme is the low functioning people who are mostly diagnosed with mental retardation and who cannot operate on their own. Such diagnoses focus on what these people cannot do rather than what they can do (Eveleth 1). Research shows that less than 30% of individuals with autism have intelligence that is in the normal range. There are individuals with autism that possess unusual skills and exceptional abilities. Some autistic individuals possess exceptional talents despite the fact that they have other functional disabilities (Bright Tots Inc.
1). Autism can bring certain strengths and special abilities. Some of these strengths and abilities include math skills, strong memory skills, musical abilities such as playing instruments, artistic abilities such as exceptional drawing, three-dimensional thinking, and the ability to effectively focus on an interest (Bright Tots Inc. 1). Autistic individuals may also have strong visual skills, Computer and technology skills, intense concentration on a preferred interest, strong encoding skills such as spelling and problem-solving ability. The unique talents and strengths that individuals with autism possess reflect the focus they have on a certain area.
The ability to develop these exceptional abilities or skills also depends on an individual’ s understanding of the patterns that are involved and the motivation that drives them to focus on them. Many autistic children have good rote memory. They can memorize large amounts of material and store many lists of materials or items in their minds for long periods and recite them accurately (Autism Speaks Inc. 10). The musical abilities of children with autism arise from the fact that many of these children have outstanding skills in tone recognition.
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