IntroductionThe internet is defined as a world system of computer networks which are interconnected and make use of the ‘standard Internet Protocol Suite’ to provide services to its world’s users. The internet is a global network with several other networks within it. These networks are owned by governments, business people, academic institutions and private individuals. These networks range from local to global magnitudes (Castells pp. 84). They are connected by a wide coverage of wireless, electronic and wireless networking technologies. The internet has helped to reshape many traditional media of communication such as music, telephone, television and film.
The advent of the internet has given birth to a society with a lot of information. An information society is one where the making, sharing, diffusion, utilization, integration and manipulation of information is an important political, economic and cultural exercise (Fuchs pp 53). In such a society every human activity is strongly dependent on technological transfer of information. History of InternetThe internet came about because of the visionary and creative thinking of some people in the 1960s. They had foreseen the possibility of sharing information about the development of research in military and scientific field through computers.
In 1962 J. C.R Licklider was the first to suggest a world wide computer network. He later moved from MIT to ‘Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA)’ later in the same year to lead the way for its completion (Bell pp. 130). The packet switching theory which became the foundation of internet connection was developed by MIT’s Leornard Klienrock. A Californian computer was connected to a Massachusetts computer by telephone line in 1965. This experiment done by ‘Lawrence Roberts of MIT’ showed that there was a possibility of having networks over wide areas and also revealed the inadequacy of the switching of the telephone line circuit.
A confirmation was made for Kleinrock’s theory of packet switching. In 1966 Roberts shifted to DARPA where he made his ARPANET plan (Clark pp. 68). The internet was actually founded by these people among others working during that time. In 1969 ARPANET presently called internet came online through the contract it was given by the ‘Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA). ’ ARPA connected 4 main computers at UCSB, Stanford Research Institute, University of Utah and UCLA in South Western part of the US.
MA led by Bob Kahn and BBN from Cambridge carried out the contract which put them online in1969 December. Many other companies were involved in the development of online and internet net working (Castells pp. 84). “Charley Kline the first internet user at UCLA sent the first packets on ARPANet as he tried to connect to Stanford Research Institute on Oct 29, 1969. The system crashed as he reached the G in LOGIN! ” Internet in the early ages was used by scientists, librarians, engineers and computer experts.
Internet and computers were not use in homes and those using them were professionals who knew how to operate very complex systems (Clark pp. 68). Al Gore was credited to have been of great support to the growth of the internet since the 70s. In 1972 Ray Tomlinson of BBN adapted e-mail for ARPANET. He chose the symbols ‘@’ from other symbols to serve as the link between the address and username. “The telnet protocol, enabling logging on to a remote computer, was published as a Request for Comments (RFC) in 1972.” RFC’s provide a way of sharing work related development in a community.
The publication of the ftp protocol which makes it possible for files to be transferred between internet sites was done in 1973. The publication made it an RFC which made RFCs available in electronic form to all users of ftp protocol (Clark pp. 68).