The paper “ Advancement of Storm Water Tunnels” is a potent variant of essay on engineering and construction. A tunnel is along an underground passageway that is completely enclosed except for the openings for exit and entrance, commonly at every end. A tunnel is capable of carrying people or vehicles across a different destination that always shortens the distance. In the olden days, tunnels were used mainly for mining, due to the recent chronological developments; tunnels have commonly been used for transport purposes that link different places and canals for diversion of water.
Tunnels are recently constructed all over the world. This paper explores the stormwater tunneling technique. Background stormwater tunnelingIn the early days, underground tunnels were specifically for mining. Before mining, in ancient history, tunnels were used to carry water. In different countries such as ancient Rome, tunnels were mostly designed to carry water from various aqueducts nearby. The technology of the tunneling technique has since developed until today. More often, tunneling becomes a solution to different challenges. However, the construction of tunnels is still under several studies since there is a need to upgrade the design of the tunnels according to the needs and time.
Water tunnels are often constructed in different soil layers that always vary from hard rock layer to soft clay layer. In the soft clay layer, the digging of the tunnel is done using the New Australian Tunneling Method. In the hard layers, the tunnels are dug using the tunnel boring machine (Nuhu I and Maimunah, 2014). Several tunnels are constructed and designed specifically for carrying of the stormwater. Most tunnels are used as sewers for many cities to help such cities in easing flood problems.
For instance, the Brunel’ s Thames Tunnel was the first tunnel that was constructed to cross under the tidal river and first shield the driven tunnel. Before the construction of tunnels, there are several conditions to be considered, firstly, the environmental condition, this includes the hydrogeological and the geotechnical characteristics of the layers of the soil. This will help decide on the best tool to be used in the construction of the tunnels. Again, the engineers need to consider the effects of constructing the tunnels to different utilities that are underground and the ones on the surface.
This can help reduce cases of destruction of certain utilities. Finally, the engineers should consider the cost of constructing the tunnels, the technical aspect required by the tunnels, and the time schedule for the construction purpose (Nuhu I and Maimunah, 2014). Advancement of stormwater tunnelsThere have been several advancements in the stormwater tunnels. The first advancement is the introduction of the cover and cuts tunnel. In constructing various tunnels using the cover and cut method, the shape of the tunnels is usually rectangular.
There are several technologies used in the cover and cut method. The first technology is reinforcing of the concrete walls using steel struts, self-supported, or the pre-stressed tie-backs. the other advancement is that the underground water is lowered b the use of the water well system. The diaphragm of the stormwater tunnels are installed by the use of different types of machinery and its bottom depth always ranges between twenty and thirty meters below the ground surface (Nuhu I and Maimunah, 2014).
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