Difference between Neolithic to the Iron Age – Essay Example
The paper "Difference between Neolithic to the Iron Age" is a wonderful example of a history essay.
In general, Neolithic Europe historically corresponds to the period between 7000BC and 1700BC. The Neolithic period overlapped the Mesolithic and Bronze ages and is a period that saw several cultural changes occur in Europe. European Neolithic groups are known to have shared certain fundamental characteristics.
The people lived in family-based communities and the societies were presumably egalitarian. Members of the community engaged in subsistence farming, hunting and gathering, and pottery. Generally, Neolithic communities that dwelled in England were highly mobile cattle herders, unlike their South Eastern Europe counterparts who mainly dwelled in fortified settlements.
Agricultural activities carried out included keeping livestock such as goats, sheep pigs and cattle, and growing plants like barley, lentils, emmer and einkorn. Gradually, the development of their farming technologies resulted in their demographic expansion as they further engaged in trade and agriculture with surrounding communities. During the Bronze Age, more efficient tools were developed and used for agricultural activities and later ox-ploughs featured in ploughing of land. Tools such as axe heads which were made of bronze and later iron, used by carpenters and farmers were usually ground and polished on a fine-grained rock.
In the Middle East, by 12000BC, small urban centres had started developing in Mureybet and Jordan Valley with people living in houses founded in pits and later in surface houses. The society began to engage in planting and harvesting of some crops as early as 9500BC and later engaged in nomadic pastoralism.
Wall painting and obsidian trade formed part of daily life in the 7000s BC. In some parts of Iraq, the society engaged in pottery irrigated farming and riverside settlement and kept the funerary object in the 6000s (BC). Use of wheels, as well as writing and mathematics, were developed in the Middle East as the society engaged in routine activities. Ancient Sumeria, during pre-historic times, featured prominently as a centre for the development of literature, business, science and agriculture.
In general, the two civilizations went through almost similar developmental stages with the engagement in some form of agriculture contributing much to later developments. While Neolithic groups may have initially engaged in nomadic pastoralism, the civilized Middle East societies settled along river banks and practiced irrigated farming.