Chemical Detection Technologies- Operational Considerations of First Responders UnitThere are constant threats of terrorists’ attacks in the world today, and thus the need to identify some ways to detect the chemicals. Hernandez-Rivera (2007) stated that the government and other involved bodies could counter the all the different terrorist attacks by use of diversified forms of chemical detection capability in those particular areas. Additionally, the food and water are highly exposed to chemical warfare agents (CWAs) that are mostly targeting the military personnel and other installations. Hakonen et al. (2016) also observed that currently there are other CWAs known as nerve gases that are increasingly used during the terrorist attacks.
Unlike the other CWAs, the nerve gases are difficult to detect with the conventional procedures. As a result, there is the necessity to undertake any possible analytical methods to identify the wide varieties of CWAs as well as their reactions such as hydrolysis and degradation within the chemical environments. Past research gives various techniques of determining the CWAs such as the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) that detects this nerve gases among others Past research provide different techniques of identifying the CWAs such as the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) that detects this nerve gases (Hakonen et al. , 2015).
This research identifies the first responders’ chemical detection technologies during operations. With the ongoing threats of terrorist attacks, the military and other armed forces need to know the different methods to deal with threats of CWAs. When a terrorist attack that includes the chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) materials occur, it means that it is likely explosive. Moriarty (2017) observed that such bombs occur to disseminate the additional materials which end up causing a lot of the people in danger of due to the CBRNs.
As a result, such incidences require immediate emergencies to mitigate the hazards. Notably, it is highly challenging to participate in CBRN terrorism especially if there are high threats scenarios and therefore it requires the common and dynamic approach to finding solutions. It is necessary to have on-site monitoring and detection during warfare to be able to manage the wars and counter war that involves CWAs. Seto (2014) stated that the CWAs were first discovered in the World Wars I and II and also Cold War period.
Surprisingly, their production has continued henceforth after the conflicts were resolved. For instance, during the 1980s, the country of Iraq utilized the sarin (GB) and mustard gas (HD) during their war with Iran. As a result, in 1992, there was a treaty that prohibited the use development, stockpiling, and production of CWAs. Later in 1997, the agreement mandated the destruction of any stockpile of these harmful gases. Other cases where these [poisonous gases have been used are such as a Japanese cult Aum Shinrikyo utilized GB in 1994 Matsumoto attacks and Tokyo subway in 1995.
These two incidents killed and poisoned a lot of vulnerable individuals, in fact, 113, 120, which is a substantial evidence of chemical world terrorism (Seto, 2014). Further Silvestri et al. (2017) stated that in the USA, after the September 11, 2001, terrorist detraction, there were instances of biological terrorism when the five people were killed using anthrax spores sent in the form of letters. Consequently, there were CWAs attacks witnessed in the Japanese military facilities that were leaked to the Samukawa containers leakages.
Additionally, the Japanese governments had health issues such as neurological disorders caused by intake of the Kamisu water. Such symptoms are believed to be due to the arsenic vomiting agents (Seto, 2014). Hence, there is a universal need to create a safe and secure environment by allowing the authorities to establish protocols and techniques of identifying the appropriate ways of handling CWAs.