The paper "Aerospace Engineering" is a great example of an essay on engineering and construction. Turning Forces Figure 1. Forces during a normal coordinated turn (Atluri, 2010) Newton’ s Law of Inertia, First Law of Motion, states that an object in motion in a straight line or at rest continues to move in a straight line or remains at rest until acted on by some other force. An aircraft or airplane, like any moving object, requires forces acting on the sides to make it spin or turn. In a normal turn in an aircraft, these side forces are supplied by banking the aircraft so that lift is exerted upward, as well as inward (Atluri, 2010) .
The forces in a lift during a turn are divided into two components at right angles to each other. One component, which acts horizontally toward the center of the turn, is known as centripetal force, or “ horizontal component of lift, ” The other, which acts vertically and opposite to the gravity (weight), is known as the Centrifugal force or “ vertical component of lift. ” The force that pulls the airplane from a straight line or flight path and makes the airplane to turn is the horizontal component of lift.
The vertical component of lift or centrifugal force which produce “ equal and opposite effect or reaction, ” makes the aircraft to change its direction and acts equal and opposite to centripetal force, or “ horizontal component of lift. ” In a correctly executed turn in an aircraft, the force that turns the aircraft is not supplied by the aircraft rudder. But the work of the rudder is to correct any deviation between the straight track of the tail and nose of the airplane.
A good turn in an airplane is one which the tail and nose track along the same path in an airplane. Therefore, the work of the rudder in an airplane is to bring the nose back in line with the relative wind that acts on the airplane. Figure 2. Normal, slipping, and skidding turns (Atluri, 2010) At any given speed, the rate at which the airplane turns will depend on the magnitude of centripetal force, or “ horizontal component of lift, ” and is proportional to the angle of bank.
As the angle of the bank is increased, the centripetal force, or “ horizontal component of lift increase, thus increasing the ROT (Tooley and Dingle, 2011). Consequently, the ROT can be controlled by adjusting-increasing or reducing- the angle of the bank. To provide Centrifugal force or “ vertical component of lift. ” sufficient to hold altitude in a level turn, an increase in the AOA is required (Atluri, 2010). Turning Manoeuvres If an airplane turns (banks), the lift vector in the aircraft will be tilted and made to turn. When an airplane turns in any plane, additional pressure or force in the aircraft must be continuously be applied to overcome the inertia that happening in the aircraft, particularly it is the tendency for an aircraft to continue moving in a straight line.
Some of the lift will act on the aircraft horizontally (Tooley and Dingle, 2011). In order for the aircraft to maintain its altitude, the aircraft is required to increase the lift on the wings. And this is done when the aircraft angle of attack of the wings (pulling back on the stick) is increased or decreased.
But if the aircraft speed is allowed to drop below the stalling speed, In most cases the wings of the aircraft will stop producing necessary lift (stall) and if the aircraft is too low from the ground to recover, it may turn into a disaster (such as it may crash) (Tooley and Dingle, 2011).