Magnetic Resonance ImagingMagnetic resonance Imaging gives a good contrast between the body and the soft tissues of the body (Hackensack 2011, p 619). This makes it a very powerful component in the in providing detailed images of the heart, muscles and the brain compared to other methods of imaging in medicine like X –rays and computed tomography. This is because, unlike the traditional X-rays and CT scans, the MRI does not use Ionization radiation. Though CT gives a good spatial resolution, MRI does provide comparable resolution that has better contrast resolution.
MRI scanner includes those for which can produce an optimized image contrast which are based on the chemical sensitivity (Arijitt etal 2008). In medicine, typical MRI examination consists of sequences which are chosen to provide a certain type of information on the subject tissue. It is this information that is synthesized and interpreted by the physician. This essay is shall discuss how the MR and MRI is used with respect to hippocampus, epileptic seizures, Alzheimer’s disease, brachial plexus and the thoracic outlet syndrome. Review of the anatomy and normal MR appearance of the hippocampus.
Suggest an MRI protocol for the patient presenting with generalized epileptic seizuresThe hippocampus is one of the major and important components of the human brain that is involved with many diseases. MR imaging is useful in visualizing the hippocampus to enable detection of pathologic entities such as atrophy or hippocampal sclerosis in patients who have Alzhimer’s disease or temporal lobe epilepsy. Although the majority of estimates of signal abnormality and hippocampal size have clinical value, precise imaging helps to further delineate to the smallest atomic detail of the hippocampus.
As a result it is possible to get the very sensitive and localized lesion in the structure. Two major parts constitutes the hippocampus, the dentate gyrus and the hippocampus proper. Below the hippocmpal fussure is the subiculum where superior curvature occupies. Hippocampus which represents allocortex or primitive is separated from temporal neocortex by a transitional zone of subiculum. Hippocampus proper constitutes of six layers; alveus, stratum oriens, stratum pyramidale, stratum radiatum, stratum lacumosum and stratum moleculare. The alveus covers that portion of hippocampus which protrudes in the temporal horn of lateral ventricle.
Its main path of efferent is followed by subcular axons and the hippocampal. Anatomic details of the hippocampus correlates closely with the findings of anatomic in cadaveric section. Imaging could be improved through use of pulse sequence of MR. This method would also allow the acquisition of acquisition of large matrix examinations that can be accepted over a period of time that can be accepted clinically. This technique therefore helps to improve the anatomic details. More so, it helps to detect the abnormality of signals that arise as a result of hippocampus. Hackensack observes that with very fine refinement in MR technology the fine anatomic details of hippocampus are identified (2011, p 635).
Though the cellular structures of the hippocampus proper are above the resolution of the current technique, some of the atomic structures can be identified with consistency. Hippocampus, as in caudate nucleus do form and arc which runs roughly runs roughly rostral to the caudal with the head, body and tail in the medial temporal lobe. The hippocampal head is marked by hippocampal digitations that are sagittally oriented which enfolds the various layers of the hippocampus proper of which each is surrounded by a digital extension of the dentate gyrus.