Sociological Aspects of GlobalisationGlobalisation brought about new structures into existence; and the traditional social, economic and political structures were radically changed by it. This can be witnessed at the global level, in cities, regions, and several nations. This change is not limited to a particular nation, as globalization has effectively dissolved the geographical boundaries between nations. This has permitted massive investment of capital across nations, and enhanced the free movement of labour, goods and services (Center For Globalization and Policy Research ). The areas that have benefitted the most, due to globalisation are employment, economic development, political organisations and social welfare.
Globalisation has increased international competition, which has exposed the hither to fore insular domestic trade policies, of many a nation, to new challenges. Furthermore, globalisation created an environment, in which every nation had to recast its policies relating to domestic capital markets, labour markets, science and technology, and development. These policies had to be restructured to accommodate international challenges. Policy – makers, sociologists and other entities had to draft new policies to deal with the forces of globalisation, which were absent in the past.
Thus, globalisation served to reform the entire social structure at all levels (Center For Globalization and Policy Research ). Globalization influences every human aspect and can be felt through its effects on daily life. It has changed the manner and increased the speed of communication, and promoted international travel. Globalisation has improved commerce. It has the capacity to compress the world into one global village, and it brings about a concrete global interdependence (Cheong, Oct2008). It is a novel concept regarding some of its aspects, and in other aspects it has been with us from quite some time.
In the prehistoric times there were no geographical boundaries and independent states. Thus globalisation had already been in existence during that period. These prehistoric people had a common life style and culture, and capitalism modernised it. The origins of capital determine the ideology of globalisation. Therefore, the country that invests capital will have considerable influence on the material and philosophy of globalisation. The present economic globalisation revolves around a few affluent cities, which bring in foreign investment. This economic globalisation generates the immigration of labour to the states from which the capital originates (Cheong, Oct2008).
The process of globalisation commenced after the collapse of the Berlin Wall, in the year 1989. It generated considerable aspirations and optimism about the future. However, after a decade the situation changed. Globalisation did not prove to be all that beneficial, and by the end of the 1990’s, many nations came to detest globalisation and there was a worldwide movement against it. The opponents to globalisation achieved some success, in mobilising global consciousness and the solidarity of nations.
The September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks proved to be a major setback to the process of globalisation. Subsequently, aversion and hostility towards globalisation increased (Pires-O'Brien, Summer2008). However, this aversion towards globalisation was principally confined to economic neo – liberalism and its pro – corporatist approach; which curtails individual freedom and attempts to change the local culture. It is aimed at making profits. Globalisation is an experiment in modernity, and this new concept is spreading rapidly across the world. It is creating new social structures and bringing into existence new lifestyles, cultures and political structures.
Thus sociology is transforming into a new paradigm (Pires-O'Brien, Summer2008).