1.Assessment Of Population Health Needs{about Tobacco Smoke And Smokeless In India} – Essay Example

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Teacher: University: Introduction and AimsConcerns over the rising trends in tobacco usage in India are increasing. There is a dire need to recognize the escalating issue of tobacco as an adverse effect to health that leads towards the ultimate death of user in many cases. There are many complications involved in the control of tobacco usage in India. A huge variety in tobacco usage is found, most of the variety in the kinds of tobacco introduced by the producers is in response to the heavy demand by public health concerns. The government response to address the public concerns on tobacco usage is not praise-worthy.

This is also the case with many local NGOs, who are not much successful to highlight the destruction of tobacco smoke and smokeless in India. Critchley, J.A. (2005, p43). In India, there are almost one hundred and ninety million people belong to the category of tobacco smoke and smoke less. There are positive sings, Yach D. rvd. edn (2007-p66) across India for the control of tobacco usage, which are increasing by the passage of time. This report emphasizes on the ‘Health Need Analysis’(HNA) and explores various aspects in this regard in Indian perspective.

Tobacco is a major public health problem. Given the current pattern of tobacco use globally, it is estimated that 250 million children and adolescents who are alive today, would die prematurely because of tobacco, most of them in developing countries. Different counties have adopted various strategies for control of use of tobacco. The launch of the Tobacco Free Initiative of the World Health Organization (WHO) and subsequently Framework Convention on Tobacco Control was a major landmark in the history of tobacco control.

Most countries have responded positively with initiation of many steps for tobacco control. However, for a cost effective planning and evaluation of control measures, it is important to have information on tobacco use status in all countries. South Eastern region of WHO is specifically facing with multiplicity of tobacco use modalities and comprehensive information on various aspects of tobacco use has not been well documented in this region. PopulationSet of people that are selected in this study consist of the people in the country India.

The quantum of population is very large. The spectrum of population is too wide. Since objectives are clear, focus is made on the different segments of people in India who are addicted to smoke and smokeless tobacco. The people who do not use tobacco are also taken into account. The doctors, research reports, research organizations, public and government sectors have also been included. [Appendices I-III] According to the WHO estimates, 194 million men and 45 million women use tobacco in smoked or smokeless forms in India. In India, tobacco consumption is responsible for half of all the cancers in men and a quarter of all cancers in women, in addition to being a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases.

Several researches conducted in this regard that comprise thousands of people, present a concrete connection between a variety of tobacco usage and manifold results. Focus of most of the researchers is on a variety of characteristics of tobacco plague. Survey of Tobacco(2006-p432) creates powerful connection between usage of tobacco and tuberculosis and cancer recorded in different researches. A direct connection exists in the disease risk not communicated loudly and a foremost transferable cause of disease as shown by various research outcomes stated by Critchley, J.A. (2005-p98). India also has one of the highest rates of oral cancer in the world, partly attributed to high prevalence of tobacco chewing.

Forms of tobacco chewing include pan (piper betel leaf filled with sliced areca nut, lime, catechu and other spices chewed with or without tobacco), pan-masala or gutkha (a chewable tobacco containing areca nut) and mishri (a powdered tobacco rubbed on the gums as toothpaste).

In India tobacco use is estimated to cause 800,000 deaths annually. The World Health Organization predicts that tobacco deaths in India may exceed 1.5 million annually by 2020. However, considerable research is required to comprehend the actual trends. Nationally representative and reliable prevalence data on tobacco consumption are scarce. Similarly, the socio-demographic predictors of tobacco smoking and chewing are poorly understood.

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