1710cm -1 COHQuestion three(a) Oxidation stateH3PO3 = 3 + 6 = 9H4P2O7 = (14 + 4) / 2 = 9 it is in the highest oxidation stateH5P3O10 = 8(b) According to Pauling’s second rule; Since not more than two electrons may occupy any given molecular orbital and when they occupy one orbital, the electrons spin must be paired and in opposite direction, this means that oxoacid forms a volatile acidQuestion fourStructure and properties of oxides of carbon, silicon and lead: Points to discuss: Physical properties of these oxidesChemical properties of these oxidesStructures Oxidation statesStability and existence of these structuresHybridizationPhysical properties: Formation of oxide ion is favored when oxygen combines with metals that have low ionization energy; to start with the oxides of carbon include carbon monoxide (CO) carbon dioxide (CO2) dicarbon monoxide (C2O) carbon trioxide (CO3).
These oxides of carbon are colorless, odorless, carbon dioxide gas is detectable because it forms mist like cloud with clean water. Carbon is non-metal while silicon is a metalloid and lead is a metal, therefore metalloid oxides will form amphoteric oxides. Oxides of lead include lead II oxide, lead IV oxide, and lead VI oxide; PBO which is lead II oxide is a powerful oxidizing agent which is yellow in color and sometimes rhombic.
Silicon oxides include silicon dioxide, remember silicon monoxide does not exist, physical properties include high melting point and boiling point but carbon dioxide and lead oxide have low melting point because they form a small discreet units and have weak attraction to each other because they are not purely ion, carbon dioxide forms a discreet molecule joined together by weak forces but silicon dioxide has three dimension net work and stable because it has no weak forces.
Carbon dioxide and oxides of lead exist in gaseous form but oxide of silicon exists in solid form. Under physical properties, the structures of oxides of silicon form a three dimension network normally found in solid form unlike its counter part of carbon dioxide, this is because carbon dioxide forms a linear structure and this is the reason as to why carbon dioxide has low melting and boiling point. Silicon dioxide forms a trigonal planar structure with a lone pair, but has various crystal structures.
Silicon monoxide does not exist, while oxide of lead forms a pyramidal structure. Chemical properties: Silicon oxide reacts with strong bases showing the acidic character of this oxide. Other oxides of carbon and lead will give acid; lead oxide is a powerful oxidizing agent. Lead oxide reacts with both acids and bases giving lead oxide amphoteric characterHybridization: Silicon dioxide since it exists as a solid with a three dimension figure that has a trigonal planar structure, its hybridization is SP3.note that there is no pi-pi bond in silicon dioxide, that is hybridization.
Carbon dioxide has a linear structure and its hybridization is SP, oxides of lead exists in different structures but mostly pyramidal with several lone pairs depending with the oxide, its hybridization can be SP3 or dSP2.