The paper "Bradford Riots of 2001 - Plural, Elite, and Marxian Model" is an outstanding example of politics coursework. England had seen a spate of racial riots in the year 1950s (Fryer, 1984 & Ramdin, 1987), and this was once again repeated in the year 2001. The riots of the 1950s involved the Whites and African Carribeans while the riots of 2001 involved Whites and South Asians. Ray and Smith, 2002, have stated that the riots of the year 2001, was linked to more than four factors. The four main factors were unemployment and poverty that existed in city areas leading to a sense of disillusionment, long periods of mistrust with the police force and a resultant increase in racial violence, and the growth of certain groups that can be termed as far-right groups. The main context was the attack on Asian men and women in the City centre in Bradford, the banned march of the right-wing, the closing of the final day of city’ s annual multi-cultural festival. Various sources of crime and conviction have come out but the reliable source has been provided by The data from the Census of Population 2001, ONS.
The sources include age, ethnic origins, the status of employment, place of residence. 90% of those arrested in the aspect of the riot were South Asian, mainly from Pakistan. The majority of those arrested were unemployed. 80% of those arrested were from inner areas of Bradford. The data from the Census of Population 2001, ONS showed that more than 80% of the people living in Bradford belonged to white ethnic group and 14 % of the people belonged to Pakistan.
Census of Population 2001, ONS, also showed that 60% believed in the Christian religion and 16 % were followers of Muslim in the riot-affected area. The south Asians sentenced for the offence were spread in all age groups: below 21 and above 21 as per the data presented on Bradford Telegraph and Argus. What the Bradford riot did was to express a feeling of labour racism (Hasan, 2000) and other new modes of ‘ racialisation’ (Lea, J, & Young, J,1982) The questions that the different theoretical frameworks encourage to ask about the Bradford ‘ riots’ Going into the history and context of the Bradford riots of 2001 and based on the three models of politics, we can safely generate a set of questions.
The three models that are in the discussion are Plural, Elite, and Marxian model. 1) How to create employment opportunities for the younger generation from all class including minority ethnic groups from South Asia? 2) Which model of development is suitable for bigger job creation in the area: Public under the government or the private? 3) How to create better educational facilities in the Bradford area? 4) How to attract the younger generation from the South Asians in the Bradford area to the stream of education? 5) How to minimize the problem of race differences in labour? 6) How to increase community interaction between different ethnic groups? 7) How to work out a model that eliminates racial differences, racial prejudices? 8) What was the nature of the people of a group involved in a riot?
for example, the role of the older generation compared with the younger generation? 9) Which model of economy can solve the differences in Bradford? 10) Were riots an expression of alienation?
Burlet, S,& Reid, H, 1998, 'A gendered uprising: political representation and minority ethnic communities', Ethnic and Racial Studies, Vol 21(2),pp.270-87.
Fryer, P,’ 1984’,’ Staying Power: the history of black people in Britain’, Pluto Press & Ramdin, R,1987, ‘The Making of The Black Working Class in Britain’, Aldershot
Hasan, R, 2000 'Riots and urban unrest in Britain in the 1980s and 1990s: A critique of dominant explanations', in Class Struggle and Social Welfare, Routledge, London.
Lea, J, & Young, J, 1982, 'Urban violence and political marginalization: the riots in Britain: summer 1981', Critical Social Policy, Vol1( 3),pp. 59-69.
Liz Smith,2001,’Britain: Bradford is fourth city hit by riots’, viewed on April 16,2009.
Ray, L, & Smith, D, 2002 ,’Racist Offending, Policing and Community Conflict’, paper presented to the British Sociological Association Conference.
William Domhoff,2005,’A Critique of Marxism’,viewed on April 16,2009.
(http://sociology.ucsc.edu/whorulesamerica/theory/marxism.html critique of marxism)
William Domhoff,2005,’Alternative Theoretical Views’,viewed on April 16,2009.
2005,’Unrest shows the need to resist the elite’s agenda’ ,viewed on April 16,2009
Census of Population 2001, ONS
Bradford Telegraph and Argus.