The paper "Cockcroft Building Refurbishment" is a good example of a case study on engineering and construction. IntroductionIn the UK the construction sector produces more waste compared to any other sector of the economy. It also generates the highest amount of hazardous wastes. This has an impact on the environment and society in different significant ways. With the increase of waste disposal costs, it is wise to work on the maximization of the waste efficiency by waste producers. Demolition, construction and refurbishment and processes for the supply of materials produce a considerable amount of waste. According to the UK government, the wastes are about 70 million tones.
The construction industry produces about 17% of all the wastes in the United Kingdom. The amount of wastes produced by refurbishment is not known. However, there are many opportunities offered through refurbishment for recycling, reuse, and use of recycled materials (Skoyles 1987). Demolitions produce a lot of unnecessary waste which is not reused. In some waste minimization initiatives site managers are offered deals by firms to combine architectural salvage with demolition. The salvage is then used to pay for demolition. Building and construction wastes come from the building materials used to construct a building.
They are produced through processes of construction, demolition and refurbishment, and renovation. Waste can be defined as "any substance or object that you discard, intend to discard, or are required to discard is waste and as such is subject to a number of regulatory requirements. " This is inclusive of material that is taken for in house treatment or recycling. They are still regarded as waste. Construction wastes are composed of rejected material which is a result of direct production or by industries and constructions in an incidental manner Abiel Cartz (2000). Among construction wastes, there are nails, electrical wiring, insulation, and rebar.
Other wastes come from the preparation of the site like dredging materials, rubble and tree stumps. The wastes may have asbestos, lead among other hazardous material. A bigger portion of wastes comes from building materials like concrete, bricks, and wood which has been damaged or cannot be used for one reason or another in the process of construction(Skoyles 1987). Studies have revealed that this portion may come to between 10% and 15% of the total volume of materials used to make a building.
There is normally a huge variation in construction sites. This makes it possible to create opportunities for waste reduction. Wastes on Cockcroft building There are various types of wastes that can be found on the site. Among them are materials with asbestos, recoverable materials, hazardous materials and clean fill. For each of the categories of wastes, the methods of management are different. Clean fill is composed of soil that is not contaminated, gravel, rock, wood, asphaltic, concrete, metal, wood, plasterboard, metal, gypsum, plastic, blocks and nonreactive solids.
Sheetrock, roofing shingles, wood waste and other wastes from demolition or construction are not classified as clean fill. Bricks, concrete, cinder blocks and other materials from clean fill without heavy metal painting fall in the category of clean fill Marker Newton (2006). Recoverable materials can be removed so that they can be reused or recycled to form new products. They include windows, doors, bricks, lumber, glass, ceramic tile, and cinder blocks. Wastes that can be recycled from the site include asphalt shingles, glass, concrete, lumber, electrical wire, and sheetrock.
Recovered wastes are supposed to be used in one way or the other. It normally proves very expensive and unnecessary to set aside materials for recycling when there is no market for the products that come out of the Edward G. Nawy (2008).
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Marker Newton (2006); Demolition and construction; waste management strategies; Mitchell publishing, London
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