The paper “ Jamrozik’ s Ideas on Social Policy – Impact of Unemployment Linked to Income Security, and Education in Australia» is a persuasive variant on case study on sociology. This essay will discuss Unemployment and Unemployed group(s) in Australia with a focus on the effects of Social Policy (SP) debates and outcomes from a restructuring of the Australian welfare state. It will provide a timeline on the trend for unemployment in Australia. Three policy domains will be discussed; Income security, Unemployment, and Education and how these domains link and have impacted each other.
Jamrozik’ s ideas on Social Policy changes from ‘ Welfare-state’ to ‘ Post-Welfare state’ will be analyzed with a focus on the right of ‘ Social Citizenship’ in Australia, as well as State comparison. In addition, Jamrozik’ s theoretical model will be briefly analyzed as it relates to the unemployed group and market function of the economy. Finally, future implications of current policies on the unemployed group will be reviewed. Unemployment has been a social problem in most developing countries and Australia is no exception. According to Jamrozik (2009, p. 167) “ unemployment remained an unresolved social problem” by the end of the 20th century, and has lasted for almost 30 years in most of the industrialized free-market economies of the West. Unemployment has been persistent and devastating but the term ‘ unemployment’ has changed in history according to economic circumstances and social interventions (Loundes, 1997, p.
1). Unemployment has been characterized as “ rates of over 8 percent” in most of the recent period (Loundes, 1997, p. 2). However, it is often stated that the unemployment rate is not a true representation of the unemployment problem.
This is because the current definition does not consider people who fail the availability for work criteria or job search but will still work if given a chance (Loundes, 1997, p. 5). The unemployed group in Australia include ‘ Indigenous Australians’ who experience high unemployment rates (Jamrozik, 2009, p. 91). The latest data recorded in 2002 shows their rate of unemployment as “ 3.4 times higher than the population as a whole” in addition they are more likely to be employed on a part-time basis (Kryger, 2005, Para. 5). Additionally, young people who leave school at age 15 or 16 years and those with low education performances are “ predictably condemned to a life of marginality” (Jamrozik, 2009, p.
172). Regional differences affect employment opportunities, as well as lack of skills that are currently demanded in the labor market. Data shows in 2010-2011 there were over 116,700 Australians long-term unemployed (ABS, 2011, p. 2). Across Australia, New-South Wales had a higher long-term unemployment rate (1.1%) and ratio (22%); Western Australia with 0.6% and 14%; Northern Territories 0.4% and 15%, and ACT, 0.4% and 11% (ABS, 2011, pp. 2-3). 72% of the long-term unemployed group lost their last jobs while 27% left as compared to the short-term unemployed where 57% lost their job while 43% left (ABS, 2011, p.
5). Previously the unemployed group did not have income security as part of their programs but are currently able to benefit from unemployment benefits. Income security provides vital dimensions for mitigating the impacts of unemployment in Australia and is designed to cushion the unemployed from the effects of unemployment in the economy. Unemployment has developed through history in different ways due to changes in the Australian labor market.
During the Colonial period, Australia had unemployed people but lacked unemployment benefits. Initially, the welfare system only provided for particular group(s) of people and included “ old-age pension, invalid pensions and maternity allowances” (Jamrozik, 2009, p. 79). However, this has grown to cover other social domains such as education, health, social security, and community amenities among others. Later Classical liberalism, implemented unemployment benefits through the welfare-system to provide income security. A reason for this change was the continual increase of the Commonwealth powers in social welfare participation.
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