The paper "Hierosolyma - a Clarion Call by Pope Urban II" is a delightful example of a history case study. The Latins refer to it as ‘ Hierosolyma’ which was a clarion call by Pope Urban II for the liberation of the many holy places from the treacherous ‘ infidels’ . The response to this call came in the form of French nobles taking up the cross in the guise of the mighty sword. When they gained entry into the Holy City of Jerusalem, their non- Christian populations were slaughtered by the Crusaders. The aftermath of what ensued made it ghost-like city bathed in blood.
The ‘ Dome of the Rock, ’ (691 AD) was built by the Caliph Abd al- Malik, and represented the complex relations between the Jews, Christians and Muslims. Referring to the metalwork (Eva, R. Hoffmann) stated that ‘ The artwork had great aesthetic beauty with complex floral and geometric patterns that made use of rock crystal from the land of Egypt, metal inlay came from both Iraq and Iran and the ivory from Spain. ’ It is believed by Muslims to be the rock from where Muhammad ascended to Heaven, and by Christians where Abraham nearly sacrificed his son Isaac (Genesis 22) is a magnificent edifice that was renovated with a beautiful golden dome and spectacular blue mosaic tiles.
This inauspicious onslaught manifested itself as crusader architecture through the thorough reconstruction of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre that exists even to this day. The strong message that comes out from the Latin West is that the occurrences that took place were because they had been initiated by Christ to lend protection to the Holy City. Ousterhout, Robert G.
states that the churches that were ‘ dedicated to Santo Stefano Bologna were the closest to the original of the numerous existing Romanesque copies of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem. ’ It was rebuilt during the 12th century and the Bologna premises had two buildings – one was a church of S. Sepolcro and the other was a chapel of S. Croce. These two buildings were connected by a colonnaded court that was open and contained an imitation of the relics from the Church of the Holy Sepulchre.
There are a lot of similarities between the two. ‘ In addition, members of Bolognas leading families participated in the First Crusade. ’ (A. Sorbelli, Storia di Bologna, 1938)