World Literature – Book Report/Review Example

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World literature My ancestors would have been rationalists. Literary rationalism just as the suggests is among the major literary movement that enhanced the creation of the contemporary society. The modern society is not ideal but it has appropriate structures that enhance the survival of everyone in their own rightful places. The world experienced systematic evolutions to become the near perfect place it is today. Stratification remained fundamental social phenomenon that influenced the life of the people in their respective societies. However, with such appropriate literary movements as rationalism during the age of enlightenment helps eliminate some of the subjective modes of stratification thus paving way for the liberal structure of modern societies.

The privileged few in the ancient societies secured their prestigious positions through birthrights. Family names and lineages mattered in the earlier society. Such thoughts and modes of stratification limited the advancement of the world as the discussion below portrays. During the age of enlightenment, both intellectual and cultural factors accentuated the importance of reason. Reasoning helped expand human’s viewpoint on some of the social, cultural and even political factors at the time.

Various philosophers during the age fronted unique and realistic ideas that presented solutions to the problems facing their respective societies. Politics and governance for example was among the most contentious issues. Dynasties exploited their subjects by safeguarding their families’ lineages at the expense of the rest of the populace who worked to sustain their corrupt leaders (Villanueva 71). Religion was yet another institution that exploited the masses by indoctrinating them into weird beliefs. Religion colluded with the leadership in most societies to exploit the populace.

The age of enlightenment therefore experienced the invention of new ideas and philosophies all of which enhanced the creation of the modern society. John Locke for example was among the leading political philosophers at the time. He invented the social contract theory that enhanced the creation of the modern day democracies. According to his theory, the people in the society formed social contracts with a few of their members to rule them. According to the contract, the leadership’s major role is to protect the property and interests of the populace.

They rule for a definite period after which the populace evaluates the ability of the leaders to deliver thus either reelecting them for another term or electing other set of leaders. The theory was vital in restructuring the world order. Most societies adopted the political ideology thus systematically adopting democracy. Democracy may arguably not be the best type of political structure. However, democracy is better than the previous political structures that existed before the age of enlightenment. Democracy is responsible for the current state of the world. Politics of democracy bestows sovereignty to the people.

The people make choices and influence the governance of their societies. The people elect their leaders who must promise to improve both the security and safety of the people thus creating a conducive environment for the prosperity of the people. Most of the leading democracies in the world today such as the United States and Britain have systematic structures that safeguard the basic rights and privileges of the populace. Education and health care are such basic entitlements. While the society today is not ideal, the people enjoy various liberties owing to the literary movements. Literary rationalism enhanced the age of enlightenment.

Rationalists argued that “reason was the only source of knowledge” thus creating a society in which people questioned and critiqued the existing structures with the view to adopting better structures and better societies. Rationalists opposed the existing structures most of which limited the liberties of the people. Rationalists believed on the existence of logic in reality (Byerly 54). They therefore investigated the logic in every social structure. This led to the accumulation of numerous viable alternatives to the existing structures at the time thus fostering the age of enlightenment.

Rationalists operated on two basic theories, which were justification, and rationalism both of which required rationalists to prove their ideas by providing rational explanation and placement of the ideas in the society. In retrospect, the traditional social structures limited the values of humanity. The privileged few lived in ideal yet virtual societies at the expense of the millions of other people who lived in deplorable situations. The advent of the various literary movements such as romanticism, realism and modernism among many others enhanced the social changes thus contributing to the development of the contemporary society.

Through such movements, the people critiqued and questioned the existing structures in the society. They used such to investigate and create alternative structures that facilitated the creation of the modern world. Life is better in the modern societies despite the numerous challenges than it was in the previous social structures thanks to the literary movements. Works citedByerly, Alison. Realism, Representation and the Arts in Nineteenth Century Literature. Cambridge [u. a.: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1998. Print. Villanueva, Darío. Theories of Literary Realism.

Albany: State Univ. of New York Press, 1997. Print.

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