The paper “ The Problems of Philosophy by Bertrand Russell“ is a thoughtful variant of book review on philosophy. A complete and single definition of Philosophy is very hard to quote. It could be said that philosophy is a science of questions. There are many questions in life that are needed to be answered. And one cannot get their answers easily. Some questions are thought-provoking. Philosophy deals with questions regarding humanity and life, the ethics of life and how life should be spent. It deals with the questions about the things that are around us and that are needed to be given a thought.
An answer could be given by any person, but that answer is not eligible as a philosophical answer. The philosophical answer should be containing the knowledge in it, about the life and the world, the harshness of life and the simplicity of the universe which is enclosed in the complexities. With the passage of time, the field of philosophy has expanded altogether. In the past, everything that was thoughtful was included in the philosophy, for example, the science of astronomy was also included in the philosophy.
But as time passes, people tried to think about the questions, whether they should be included in the philosophical questions or not. The questions which are actually relevant and interesting regarding mankind and humanity are only included in it. The philosopher is different from the average person; he thinks and makes his theories rationally and in a realistic way. So it could be said that philosophy is a complete method and this concept was proven wrong, which tells that philosophy only comprises of few theories and inspirations into it.
Philosophy is as old as mankind. It is mature than any civilization and tells us the whole story of humanity in itself. Questions and philosophy cannot be separated in any case. Philosophy emerges from the questions and questions emerge from the mind of people. If they are not answered properly, they could be turned into an unsolved mystery in the minds of people and unsolved mysteries usually don’ t give good results. Philosophies are distinguished on the basis of time of its origin and also on the basis of the geographical locations, from where it emerges.
There are different doctrines of philosophy as well, for example, realism and nominalism, rationalism and empiricism, skepticism, etc. Bertrand Russell is a famous British Philosopher, born on 2nd February 1872 and died in 1970. There is a real variety in his work and philosophy was explained well by him. He taught people what is the philosophy and how to study it. He explained the concept of philosophy in a way that could be understood by people who are not having any literary or philosophical background. He emphasized on questions, philosophy is actually based on questions.
Questions arise in the mind of people and they ask them from the philosophers, in this way the philosophical theories are created and answers to many questions are provided. Bertrand Russell is considered as an analytical philosopher. When we talk about philosophy, the questions asked should be answered in a way that is understandable and convincing. Though according to Phyrrho everything could be doubted except the appearances and this is true in a sense that appearance is visible to everyone but the philosophical ideas and thoughts are not visible and they need to be understood by the people and is not easy to be accepted by people as well.
Some philosophers agreed that “ truth is subjectivity” , and the reason they gave is that questions about the existence of an individual’ s inner relationships are important for many people and they keep asking these questions in every era. Kierkegaard said that religious faith is a subjective question and to get the answer to this question, one should be wrested passionately and avidly.
Bertrand Russell. The Problems of Philosophy. Hackett Pub. Co., 1990
Edwin Arthur Burtt. The English Philosophers from Bacon to Mill. The Modern Library. 1939
John Shand. A Theory of Justice. Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. 1971.
Nigel Warburton. Philosophy: The Basics. Routledge. 2004
René Descartes. Meditations on First Philosophy: With Selections from the Objections and Replies. Cambridge University Press. 1996.