HD3 – Book Report/Review Example

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Theories that Supported the Constructs of the ArticleBehaviorist theoriesThese theories originated in the early 1990s and are of the view that learning consists of behavioral change as a result of acquisition, reinforcement and use of associations between environmental stimuli and the individual’s observable response (United Nations Education, Scientific and Cultural Organization, 2014). These theories were initiated in 1950s and viewed people as not being collections of responses to external stimuli but as information processors. They are concerned with the complex mental phenomena. Under these theories, learning is seen as the knowledge acquisition, where the learner as the information processor absorbs the information, performs cognitive operations on it, and keeps it in his memory (United Nations Education, Scientific and Cultural Organization, 2014).

The learners are also viewed as passive recipients of knowledge by teachers, and the preferred approaches to learning are lecturing and reading from textbooks. Constructivist theoriesThese principles are believed to have originated between 1970s and 1980s. They states that learners should not be viewed as being passive recipients of information, rather, they see students as active constructors of their knowledge as a result of interacting with the environment and reorganization of their mental structures.

The United Nations Education, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (2014) notes that, learners are sense makers as they interpret information obtained. Social learning theoriesHaving been advanced by Albert Bandura, these theories embrace attention, memory and motivation. He argues that it is through the social context within which people learn and where learning is facilitated through modeling, observational learning and imitation. Socio-constructivism theoriesThe rise of situated cognition and learning perspective leads to the change in the learning view to include the significant role that social interaction plays.

As such, learning and cognition are interactions between individuals and situations and knowledge is treated as situated and a product of an activity, culture, and context in which it is generated and utilized. An Outline of the Literature Review for the ArticleGeneral overview of learning Tutoring and teaching strategiesLearning styles Verbal teaching Visual teachingFactors affecting learning Social and cultural aspects Contribution of a tutor Causes of failures and successes in learning Approaches to improving learning General overview of mathematicsBasic AlgebraFactors affecting the understanding of mathematicsCauses of mathematics anxietyTechniques for handling math anxietySampling Technique(S) used by the Author in the ArticleSimple random samplingThe researcher could have used this technique since his population was homogeneous and readily available.

All the frame’s subsets are given an equal probability of being chosen. Stratified sampling techniqueThe researcher could also have adopted this method by dividing the population (students) into a number of distinct categories as was the case with the student/tutor session and the student/student session. These groups can be referred to as strata, and each stratum could be selected and individual elements randomly selected.

Data Collection Techniques Used by the Author ObservationThis is a systematic data collection technique where a researcher uses his senses to examine individuals in natural settings (McMillan, 2011). The author observed the many different purposes that the Basic Algebra served. In addition, he was also able to get the information on the department’s policy of offering the course. InterviewsThe author carried out some interviews as an educational researcher after conducting observations. According to McMillan (2011), this technique is used to collect data through inquiries and its recording.

Survey forms could be used in case of structured interviews while the enumerator takes notes as talking with respondents take place in case of open interviews. This technique assisted the researcher in establishing where and how the learning of students was held. ReferencesMcMillan, J. H. (2011). Educational Research: Fundamentals for the Consumer, 6th Ed. New Jersey: Pearson Education. United Nations Education, Scientific and Cultural Organisation. (2014). Most influential theories of learning. Retrieved March 7, 2015, from United Nations Education, Scientific and Cultural Organisation: http: //www. unesco. org/new/en/education/themes/strengthening-education-systems/quality-framework/technical-notes/influential-theories-of-learning/

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