CRITICAL REACTION Chapter 12 Outline I. The world has come a long way to be what it is today. Major developments took place during the early renaissance period as people improved their way of thinking and an improvement in infrastructure. Major developments in many sectors of the economy such as artistry, music and architecture. The church further reinforced its hold in Italy through warfare and bribery. Rise of the political and wealthy class due to competition for power and development and desire for recognition from other states. The place of women in the society rarely changed although they were empowered in various other ways. II.
A. Major developments in many sectors of the economy such as artistry, music and architecture 1) Through extensive research and writing people started questioning what they had always believed. Education increased their intellectual abilities Hence ability to come up with new designs and new music and various other ways to entertain oneself. 2) A keen interest in architecture took place such that it became as important as the fields of medicine and engineering due to the massive demand for architectural pieces. New buildings were built even though most of them belonged to the church People started taking keen interest in paintings as painters emphasized the need for the paintings to appeal to both the eye and the mind. Developments gave rise to the wealthy and political class who could afford the exclusive pieces the society could offer. B.
Rise of the political class from wealthy families and families with a lot of influence. 1) The competition for resources and development gave rise to the wealthy and the political class who fought for power and control promising relief for any existing problems. They had access to the military and the tools of power and control They promised to solve the existing 2) The military often outsourced their services to the highest bidder. This was usually the people who had most access to money and power. However, when war failed, they engaged the services of diplomats to discuss peace. C.
The church was not left behind in the fight for power as it was a powerful institution and sought to maintain its power. 1. They sought to gain power in the Italian states Like the secular rulers they also engaged in warfare often hiring militaries. The more aggressive the pope at the time was, the more power they would yield and hence more control and coverage to more states through Italy. 2.
The popes were very aggressive in their rule adding onto the fact that it was revered. They engaged in bitter war with their rivals but at times opting for diplomacy with them. However, Pope Pius II became the most acknowledged pope due to his lack of interest in war but rather in writing and music. D. Place of women in the Italian society at the time was still unsecured. 1.
Women did not have much respect in the society Even though they became more educated, they were required to stay in the homes and improve their managerial skills at home. They were not allowed to make major decisions or achieve much in their lives 2. They did not achieve much unless they came from very powerful families Only those who became widows at very young ages were able to rise through the ranks though it could not be compared to that of men For instance, one of the few women who was able to rise through the ranks was the illegitimate daughter of the pope who became a teacher of art and writers. III.
The major struggles and inventions at the time paved way for the advanced technology and an improved way of thinking for the entire society through e new philosophies. The developments in architecture and music made the people more creative and have a better outlook of life. It also shows that education was expanding to various parts of the world The developments gave rise to political class who wanted power and to rule The church, being an instrumental institution also sought to maintain its rule in Italy. Women improved their status even though there were still limits on what they could do and what they could not do. IV.
In conclusion, all the developments that took place including the wars and education paved way for modernity ass it is recognized today. References Matthews, R., Noble, T., & Platt, D. (2013). Experience Humanities. New York: McGraw-Hill Higher Education. Chapter 16 outline I. Chapter sixteen focuses on the life before the scientific revolution. At this point, people started questioning the western school of thought and begun to learn more about the environment around them.
Aristotle with his theory that the earth moved up and down Improvements in medicine Improvement in technology through major inventions The rise of human law. II. A. Aristotle with his theory that the earth moved up and down. 1. people started learning about physics They learnt that the earth moves in an up and down manner to maintain balance They also learnt the law of nature where there are many forces that make the earth stable and inhabitable. 2.
The theory was further validated by Muslims and Christians through their religious beliefs and practices as they were keen on maintaining all their followers. It seemed to justify the theory of the fallen mortals It also justified the original sin and those who would be punished by fire. B. Improvements in medicine and understanding the human body improved as the church loosened its hold on human corpses. 1. At the time, there were false theories and people did not understand the way the human body was as they drew references from animal bodies. This was because there were limitations on what scientists could do with the human body. The church did not permit the operations on bodies since they thought that it would be resurrected 2.
They instead operated on animals They made comparisons between the animal bodies and used the findings on human bodies. This was most of the time very inaccurate However, with time, as the church loosened its hold, the scientists managed to understand the human body. C. Improvements of technology through inventions and innovations by great scientists and philosophers who guided the society and entire country. 1.
The invention of the clock and the pendulum was a major discovery and surpassed the hourglass which was not usually very accurate. Keeping time became an important invention at the time and people could now differentiate the different times accurately. The invention of the pendulum gave rise to accurate timekeeping and awareness and people could now plan their activities in a more efficient manner. 2. Rise of science gave rise to more philosophies that sought to combine what they have always known with the new discoveries As people learnt more and more, they started questioning the medieval philosophies and thus this gave rise to new philosophies People abandoned the belief in magic and gave reasons to everything that existed in the universe. The hold of the church also reduced ass people came up with better ways of ruing themselves and deciding what was wrong and right in the society. D.
The Rise of human law 1. Scholars came up with new philosophies which formed the foundation of international human law. Rule on how the governments would be formed were made The rules were that people were to choose their governments in a democratic manner People were further encouraged to refer to instinct when dealing with others 2.
Mental state of the people Scholars postulated that people were born with their minds as blank as slates. Their characters were then formed by their experiences and how other people treated them. III. The scientific revolution marked a decrease in the magical beliefs and the old that the church had on the people. People sought to have physical evidence of what was happening around them. The curiosity of the people gave rise to physics which explained the various forces on earth and even other planets existing in the universe. Medicine improved a great deal and knowledge of how the human body works was also formed. Improved technology gave rise to great inventions of the time such as the pendulum and insights on the human body. Human law was formed to govern the people in a fair and just manner where everyone treated the other in a way they would want to be treated. IV.
At this time, there were many changes in most parts of the world as people began to question things around them and sought to know more about the universe.
There were massive changes in how people were ruled, in the technology, giant leaps were made in the field of medicine and chemistry and even in physics. This period paved the way for modernity as we know it today and gave some insights on how the world appears. References Matthews, R., Noble, T., & Platt, D. (2013). Experience Humanities. New York: McGraw-Hill Higher Education.