The paper "What is an Internal Combustion Engine? And how have Car Manufacturers Modified it? " is an outstanding example of an assignment on engineering and construction. The history of internal combustion engines (ICEs) invention can be traced way before the start of commercial production of the commonly used petroleum fuel. However, the application of these engines was limited until in the late 1800s when they were used in various applications. The real practical use of ICEs to power cars started after the modification of an engine concept developed by Nicolaus Otto by Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach in 1885.
Since then, car manufacturers have made various improvements to the basic design of the internal combustion engine. This document explains the meaning of an internal combustion engine and explores how car manufacturers have modified these types of engines. Internal combustion engine An internal combustion engine (ICE) is a kind of engine in which a mixture of fuel and air is burned within a chamber so that the resultant pressure and temperature exerts a force on a movable part that in turn generates mechanical energy.
Examples of these movable parts include pistons and turbine rotor blades. Basically, internal combustion engines have four distinct processes that are essential for its operation. These are the intake phase, the exhaust phase, the compression phase, and the power phase. In some engine configurations, however, some phases do occur simultaneously. The intake phase allows the intake of fuel or air - depending on the type of engine - while the exhaust phase expels out the combustion products. The compression phase increases the pressure and temperature of air indirect injection engines, and of fuel/air mixture in spark plug-based engines.
The power phase involves the combustion of fuel and air mixture to produce energy that, in turn, is converted into mechanical energy. Internal combustion engines can be grouped into continuous and intermittent types. The continuous combustion engines include jet engines, gas turbines, and many rocket engines, while the intermittent combustion engines include the common two-stroke and four-stroke piston engines, and the Wankel rotary engines. These continuous combustion engines are characterized by a steady flow of fuel and air into the combustions chamber to maintain a stable flame, and hence continuous combustion.
On the other hand, intermittent combustion engines involve the periodic ignition of discrete amounts of fuel and air. Internal combustion engines are also differentiated by the type of fuel used for combustion. Fuels used on these engines include petroleum fuels, vegoil and biofuel, coal, and hydrogen fuel. Some of the petroleum-based fuels used nowadays are petroleum spirit (which is known as petrol in the United Kingdom and gasoline in the United States), petroleum diesel, liquefied petroleum gas, compressed natural gas, jet fuel, and residual fuel.
Biofuels include biogas, biobutanol, biodiesel, bioethanol, and biomethanol. Biobutanol is sometimes used as a replacement to gasoline, while biodiesel is sometimes used in place of petrodiesel. Hydrogen fuel is mostly used in spacecraft’ rocket engines. ICEs are so much distinct from the external combustion engines (ECE). ECEs, which include Stirling or steam engines, operate by delivering energy to a working fluid that is not composed of or mixed with combustion elements. These fluids can either be water, air or liquid sodium. They are often heated in a boiler by burning wood, fossil fuel, solar, nuclear, etcetera.