The paper “ Information Systems and Its Data, Technology, People, and Organizational Components” is a persuasive assignment on information technology. Information systems are the methods and means through which people and organizations utilize technologies, gather, process, store and use information aimed at facilitating planning, control, analysis, and decision making in business and organizations. An information system has components namely (Cheesman & Daniels 2001): Technology – this includes hardware and software. Hardware includes the machinery that is the computer itself and all other support equipment. Software is computer programs and manuals that support them. Data - this is a representation of information in a simplified manner suitable for communication, interpretation, or processing.
This is very vital for decision making which are the main purposes of information systems. People – for an information system to be useful people are the vital component. They are important for determining the success or the failure of the entire information system. Organization – information systems must be pegged on an organization otherwise they will be of no use or will have no impact on the desired objectives. List and define five types of information systems used in organizations Information systems are classified into five classes; Office information system (OIS) - this is the information system that uses hardware, software, and networks to facilitate workflow and enhance effective communication among workers.
In other words, it can be described as office automation whereby employees perform their duties/tasks electronically rather than manually. These tasks include creating graphics, sending messages, and accounting just to mention a few. These information systems use spreadsheets, databases, presentation graphics, web browsers, and support the use of communication technologies like facsimile, video conferencing, electronic data exchange.
Finally, it supports hardware like computer equipment, video cameras, speakers, scanners, and fax machines (Hirschheim & Smithson 1988). Transaction processing systems (TPS) - this is a transaction that captures and processes all the data generated from all the day to day transactions in an organization. These transactions may be reservations, payments, deposits, or even orders. In other words, this involves recording all the business activities taking place in the organization (Hirschheim & Smithson 1988). Management Information system (MIS) – after all the transactions have been recorded, the management uses the information processed as an aiding tool for their management activities.
Therefore this is an information system that produces accurate and timely information that helps the management make vital decisions, solve problems, track activities, or even supervise the entire organization’ s activities. This system generates reports each every now and then, it is also referred to as a management reporting system (MRS) (Hirschheim & Smithson 1988). Decision Support System (DSS) – this is a system specially designed to enable end-users to make decisions when that need is due. It is worth noting that they use data from both internal and external sources so as t have effective results.
They use statistical analysis, capabilities, spreadsheets, and graphics whereby the data extracted is evaluated for better results (Hirschheim & Smithson 1988). Experts systems (EI) - these are information systems that store human expert’ s knowledge and then imitate that for decision making as a helping hand to those with less expertise. They are made of two components; knowledge base and inference rules. As for the knowledge base, they have subject knowledge and experiences of human experts.
For the inference rules, this is a set of logical judgments and knowledge base when the user commands the system to perform tasks. In other words, they are called artificial intelligent which are human intelligence to computers (Hirschheim & Smithson 1988).
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