The paper "Australia’ s Approach to Counter-Terrorism and Counter-Insurgency since 9/11" is a great example of an assignment on politics. Question 1: Describe and analyse Australia’ s approach to counter-terrorism and counter-insurgency since 9/11. Australia’ s approach to counter-terrorism and counter-insurgency since 9/11 is generally classified into four categories namely (1) prevention, (2) preparedness, (3) response and (4) recovery (Burch, 2007 p. 9). Description and analysis of these approaches are shown in the following section. Description of the Counter-Terrorism Approaches of Australia Approaches 1 and 2: Prevention and preparedness. Improved intelligence capacity, increased effective information sharing, better detection capacity, and improved law enforcement coordination (p.
9) are important specific approaches to counter-terrorism and emergency. It will help Australia prevent the occurrence of terrorism and prepare for countering its infiltration into the country. The Australian Security Intelligence Organisation or ASIO it is in charge of domestic intelligence to intercept, thwart or manage threats or incidents of terrorism. It “ collects, analyses and distributes information on threats to national security” (Commonwealth of Australia 2005 p. 3:2) to significant agencies in the Australian Government so that they can control such threat and prevent the incident of terrorism.
Controlling such a threat would include criminal prosecution by appropriate agencies. A National Counter-Terrorism Alert System has been set up as part of controlling or preventing the incidents of terrorism. It impacts towards Australia’ s states and territories as well as business industry. Low, medium, high, and extreme are the four levels of the counter-terrorism alert system. Low means terrorist attack is not expected. Medium means a terrorist attack could possibly occur. High means a terrorist attack is likely. Extreme means a terrorist attack is imminent or has already occurred.
(p. 3:3). This alert system and information gathering on threats from the terrorist incident are widely coordinated to ensure the safety of Australian borders and transportation infrastructures such as aviation and maritime systems. It will also intercept and manage threats from chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear attacks. Approach # 3: Response. The appropriate and immediate response from the Australian Government is necessary for the event of the occurrence of a terrorist attack with coordination from States and Territories. Public safety should be the primary concern in any response that would be decided by the government, states and territories.
Minimise deaths and prevent further terrorist incidents and recovery of safety of Australian grounds are the primary goals (p. 4:2) of the response to be decided by the Australian government. Also, the international impact of the response must also be given weight. “ Police and other emergency services” (p. 4:2) operate a response towards a suspected terrorist incident and determine it if is truly a terrorist attack. Police then would take control of the situation if the latter was determined and coordinates with States and Territories and the Australian Government for an appropriate jurisdictional and national response. Approach #4: Recovery.
The recovery approach towards a terrorist incident involves a process of coordination to assist affected communities to reconstruct physical, economic and social infrastructures damaged by the terrorist attack. Services of hospitals, banks, and public works will be deployed to carry out recovery operation based on the following five aspects: (1) community recovery, (2) pyscho0social and health recovery, (3) infrastructure recovery, (4) economic recovery, and (5) environmental recovery. Legal Approaches. Australia implemented or revised existing laws to suit the needs of its National Counter-Terrorism Plan which covered the approaches discussed above.
It strengthened its border security through amendments of its Border Security Legislation in 2002 security legislation. It enacted several legislations to cover terrorism-related offences or strengthen current offences under its current laws. The Security Legislation Amendment on Terrorism Act of 2002 added new offences in the Criminal Code Act of 1995. Consequently, the Criminal Code Amendment Act of 2000 served as anti-hoax legislation expanded offences related to applying threats of terrorism using postal services.
There are other amendments done with the Criminal Code Act that expanded offences related to espionage, terrorism and slaughter of Australians outside Australia. There were other laws that expanded offences of terrorist organisations stipulated in the Security Legislation Amendment Act of 2002 and the Criminal Code Amendment Act of 2004. These two laws also cover legislation allowing the Commonwealth to legislate on matters related to terrorism and enhance the power of ASIO to investigate matters related to terrorism in order to prevent and prepare for a terrorist incident.