The paper "Project Management of the Abutment Bridge" is a wonderful example of an assignment on management. Part 1: Work Breakdown Structure The guiding criterion for this design structure is informed by the need to minimize costs associated with total investment in the construction as well as ensuring that maintenance costs. One of the reasons that increase costs for maintenance of bridge constructions is damage to bearings at the abutment as well as the expansion joints and usually, this costs as compared to the costs of the construction of road bridges is usually higher for medium class and short bridges (Hirakawa, Minehiro, Hiroyuki & Tatsuoka 2014).
This is an attribute of the design that this specified design has to cater for by introducing the integral abutment structures with the capacity to omit expansion joints and bearings Work Breakdown Structure Period Task (#) Task Description October 2015 November 2015 December 2015 January 2016 1.1 Basic Structure and Scope of Application 1.1.1 Basic Structure design 1.1.2 Scope of application 2.1 Structural Characteristics 2.1.1 General Designing 2.1.2 The setting of design conditions 2.1.3 Fundamental principles of verification 2.1.4 Structural Analysis 3.1 Structural Members’ Design 3.1.1 Superstructure, and substructure connection 3.1.2 Structural Details 4.1 Substructure Design 4.1.1 Design of abutment wall 4.1.2 Foundation/abutment connection design 5.1 Construction 5.1.1 General Construction 5.1.2 Superstructure construction 5.1.3 Substructure construction 5.1.4 Superstructure/substructure connection construction 5.1.5 Approach embankment construction Design of the Abutment Bridge The design of this abutment bridge has two parts: a) the main structure that has the superstructure, the Abutment Bridge framework, the abutment wall, and the foundation; b) the approach embankment that is built on top of the main structure.
This design is made for a bridge that is less than 40m with a height of 10m. This height is limited since lateral displacements increase with an increase in height due to the insertion of earth pressure (Hirakawa, Minehiro, Hiroyuki & Tatsuoka 2014). In this design, the shape of the superstructure is straight since skewed bridges have unpredictable structural behaviors when there is a difference in the inertial force exerted on the superstructure compared to the earth pressure exerted on the backfill (Wysocki 2013). The materials from which the embankment (backfill) is made is sand or at the very least, gravel soil that is able to properly compact as artificial lightweight materials are inappropriate due to the instability that they cause to the whole structure (Harrison & Lock 2004).
In this design, as shown in figure 1 below, the design length from the bottom of the abutment wall and the top of the supporting wall is maintained more than 4m based on the deformation capacity of the foundation based on the State Bridge Design Manual (v2008). Fig.
1: Design Specification for the Abutment Bridge Design Loads and Load Combinations Loading of the abutment bridge is very critical as it determines the manner in which the stability of the bridge can be optimized. This means that the statistical indeterminate forces of thermal effect, pre-stressed forces, pressure due to creeping, and shrinkage have to be considered in the determination of the load and load combinations for the bridge (Kousholt 2007).
Load combinations that will play a significant role in this project design including earth pressure have to be considered based on two approaches; at full load applied to the structure, and at half-load application to the structure (Kousholt 2007). Lateral pressure is another attribute of the load combination that comes into play in this design and it is applied to the bridge in the following scenarios: From one side of lateral pressure application From both sides of lateral pressure application For the situation where there is no application at all Table 1: Load and Load Combinations for the Bridge Design Recommendations for Amending the Program When there are date changes to the dates previously agreed upon, there are different ways in which the program can be adjusted including the following ways: Readjustment of the timelines – this is the obvious approach that can be done to ensure that the new timelines are met.
This involves reducing the items on the program through merging those that are closely related to each and the ones that can be done concurrently; this helps reduce valuable time to cover up the changes in the timeline desired (Hirakawa, Minehiro, Hiroyuki & Tatsuoka 2014). Optimization of operations – this refers to the strategy where you try to fast-track activities to be undertaken in order to ensure that there is the attainment of the desired timeline that has been adjusted (Hirakawa, Minehiro, Hiroyuki & Tatsuoka 2014). Increasing human capacity – this is another approach that can be used in trying to fast-track activities on the program to ensure that they meet the new deadline required.
This can be achieved by dividing the tasks available among more personnel so that the time required to complete them is appropriately reduced to meet the new deadline.