M8 Land Use Discussion/National/International Agencies Paper – Assignment Example

Land Use Discussion Effects of Building Homes and Business on Flood Plains, Beaches or Barriers Lands The impact of flooding on housing and households can be devastating. Fast-flowing floodwaters are capable o washing away entire buildings, businesses and communities. Although depending on the form of construction and characteristics of the flooding some buildings may survive, other damages occur due to the corrosive effects of salinity and damping. People have in the past ignored warnings not to erect buildings and businesses in flood areas, along beaches and barrier lands with the hope getting government assistance. As a result, the world has experienced deadly floods and great losses associated with property damage in different areas located along sea and ocean lines. Rivers and flash floods combined with landslides in countries like Brazil pose serious risks to people, infrastructure and businesses (Jha, Bloch & Lamond, 2012). Indirect consequences of building homes and business in such areas include losses from business interruption as well as increased burdens on public and household budgets. Business interruption increased travel time and costs and loss of income are indirect impacts that are often more difficult to quantify, and yet represent a significant proportion of the overall damage to communities.
Release of contaminants poses serious public risks for survivors of floods. Flood waters can mix with raw sewage and thus dramatically increase the incidence of water-borne diseases (Jha, Bloch & Lamond, 2012). Zoning ordinance infringes on an individual rights to use their property in the way they wish to without limitation. Zoning ordinance prevents construction of homes in some areas for ecological reasons especially along shorelines and flood areas. Zoning ordinance can be improved through inclusion of significant government compensation where the concept is applied.
National/International Agencies
The international Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) is among the world’s first global environment focused on promoting environmental conservation around the globe. IUCN was established in 1948 and has developed command significant recognition in environmental and sustainable development. The organization has over 2000 member organizations globally as well as over 11, 000 voluntary scientists and experts around the world (IUCN, 2012). IUCN has realized that population levels, growth and distribution continue to overload the capacity of the environment in many regions across the globe. Rapid population growth, among other factors has contributed to the disruption of biodiversity. In this case, land and water use and spatial planning should bring a balanced distribution of population through, for example, incentives for industrial location, and for resettlement and development of intermediate-sized towns, keeping in view the capacities of the environment (IUCN, 2012). In line with promotion of diversity across the globe, IUCN has participated in activities aimed at controlling population growth in different parts of the world.
IUCN has initiated numerous conservation projects with some of the projects including establishment of protected areas to prevent human settlements in such areas. This move is important in ensuring sustainability in the management of biodiversity (IUCN, 2012).. IUCN functions can be applied in public health to prevent settlement of people in areas vulnerable to environmental related disasters such as floods and landslides. Overcrowding of people in a given areas can also result into public health concerns such as sanitation related illnesses which may be controlled through pollution and population growth.
UNEP is the other globally recognized agencies dealing with controlling the impact of pollution on the environment. UNEP functions include provision of advice to governments on pollution control, co-ordinated approach to environmental health problems, production of guidelines and methodologies for setting health standards in various defined environments, and development of environmentally sound chemical control measures (UNEP, 2007). UNEP has been instrumental in ensuring that all member states comply with the standards of environmental conservation as well as prevention of pollution. Member states are expected to adhere to various environmental conservation guidelines as one of the move towards reducing the impact pollution on the environment. In collaboration with other organizations, UNEP provides guidelines on human settlement to prevent settlement of people on areas vulnerable to diseases and disasters. UNEP is also committed towards ensuring low-income house-building techniques, incorporating water and energy conservation, waste –recycling and the use of local materials. In addition, the organization also commits itself towards ensuring development of environmentally sound sewage treatment systems based on appropriate technology to limit the impact of human waste pollution on the environment (UNEP, 2007). UNEP’s functions can be applied in public health to reduce the spread of water borne diseases especially in the urban centers and other disease outbreaks associated with pollution. Provision of sewage treatment guidelines is particularly crucial in public health in controlling communicable diseases. Slum and squatter settlements improvement also contributes to the prevention of numerous health problems associated with poor sanitation and overcrowding of people in an areas.
IUCN. (2012). About IUCN. Retrieved from http://www.iucn.org/about/
Jha, A., Bloch, R & Lamond, J. (2012). Cities and flooding: A Guide to integrated urban flood risk management for the 21st century. Washington, DC: World Bank Publications.
UNEP. (2007). UNEP Annual Report 2006.Geneva: UNEP/Earthprint.