21st, November, 2009IntroductionFire Safety EngineeringFire safety has developed overtime due to the experience from so many disasters. It has led to the development of fire safety engineering as an area of study which is defined as “application of scientific and engineering principles to the protection of people, property and the environment from fire” by the BS 7974 (Christian & BSI, 2003 p. 23). The aim of fire safety engineering principles therefore is to: Ensure lives are saved, property is protected and environment is conserved including heritage buildings (Christian & BSI, 2003)Analytically evaluate both the protective and the preventive optimum measures in order to reduce fire effectsIdentify and quantify fire risks and hazards (Christian & BSI, 2003).
All these aims are achieved after gaining knowledge on the factors that can lead to fire, the process/performance of fire, how to prevent it and systems that can alert the people of the occurrence of any fire among so many others. Fires occur mostly in buildings and because of the past experiences, safety standards have been developed to ensure that it is easy to contain the fire by fire fighters whenever it occurs, it can be prevented by implementation of certain building designs and the people can be protected by the alert systems and other fire safety measures (Christian & BSI, 2003). This paper is also about fire safety.
It aims at analyzing four buildings where fire disasters occurred in the past 25years. The buildings are selected from different countries, that is, England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. A brief description of the disaster will be done and an analysis carried out considering the fire safety issues and the information provided.
After the analysis, recommendations will be given on what measure or step is necessary to avoid such fires again. The England Fire Disaster Case StudyThe Bradford City Fire DisasterThis fire happened in 1985 on May 11th after Bradford City football club moved to third division championship. The fire swallowed up the Main Stand at Valley Parade and led to 56 deaths mostly due to inhalation of smoke and 265 injuries both severe and mild (Bradford City F. C, 2009; Pomeroy, 2003). According to Bradford City F. C, the first sign of fire was detected at 3.40 pm, but just after four minutes, the fire had spread and the flames had become visible.
This made the policemen present at the scene to evacuate the people who were in Block G (2009). The signs of fire prompted a request for fire fighting equipment but this never saved the damage that was caused by the fire. The valley parade had 11,076 fans at the time of the incident. Pomeroy also noted in an article that the area where the fire started was the oldest part of the stadium and was to be repaired in a week’s time.
The stand was made of wood and the roof covered with tar. The entire stand was destroyed just in five minutes (2003). AnalysisAnalysis of fire cases is based on the causes, the factors that facilitated fire ignition and the factors that lead to its spread. In most cases, there are materials that speed up the burning rate and the spread of fire to other parts of the building. Building design also affects the effects of the fire.
Effects are based on the number of casualties, properties destroyed and the effects on the environment/people’s health (Rasbash et al, 2004).