The paper "The Purpose of and Applicability of the USEPA Risk of Death Model" is a wonderful example of an assignment on environmental studies. United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has the risk of death model and risk of undesirable health model in terms of estimating the negative effects of environmental pollution. The basic difference between these two models is that the risk of death model explains about the risk factors that may lead to mortality of persons whereas the risk of undesirable health model explains the risk factors associated with ill health which may not directly lead to death.
The risks associated with death include the pollutants and toxic metals present in drinking water and milk. The risk factors associated with ill health include the air pollution caused by vehicular pollution and industries. Though several health risk factors can be assessed and precautionary measures can be taken, some factors can’ t be assessed properly which may be called as uncertainties. They include asthma-related or induced factors and other respiratory disorders due to excess air pollution, the residual effect of toxic elements present in fruits and vegetables.
We can’ t avoid consuming fruits and vegetables and they contain several carcinogenic substances which may risk a person’ s health. Asthma-related factors like presence of dust and pollen in the air may cause bronchitis and asthma. Similarly, consumption of fruits and vegetables grown with chemical fertilizers and pesticides may result in cancer. The presence of heavy metals in groundwater may also become another important uncertainty for human health risk as they may damage the digestive and respiratory system in long run. The accurate estimation of risk to human health is important for proper diagnosis.
Hence there is a necessity of estimating risk in the most conservative manner so that some hidden factors also would be considered for the accumulated effect of the risk to human health which would facilitate faster and prompt diagnosis. For example, the risk assessment of Cryptosporidium parvum in reclaimed water was done using a conservative method in San Francisco. The conservative risk element will be larger in terms of assessment because it takes into consideration of each minute aspect with an objective of protecting human life, however, in terms of real risk to human health, it is always smaller as it provides ideal precautionary measures.