Cultures and Innovation in Ancient Mesopotamia and Egypt – Assignment Example
This paper "Cultures and Innovation in Ancient Mesopotamia and Egypt" is a perfect example of an assignment on history. Mesopotamia had three culture that existed between 3000 and 1600 B.C. These cultures were Sumeria, Akkadians, and Babylonians. According to Matthews, Noble, & Platt (2014), the first cultured in Mesopotamia was Sumerian civilization. It is essential to understand that Sumerian civilization was predominant between 3000 and 2350 B.C. and comprised of about thirty cities. Summer had two most influential kings who strived to create a society rich with culture. The name of these two kings was Urukagina and Gilgamesh. Some Sumerians regarded King Gilgamesh as a ruler of divine creation and mortal (Ancient Pages, 2016). Existing pieces of literature believed that King Gilgamesh was a renowned architect. For instance, the city walls of Uruk was one of his greatest architectural works. Nearly the end of Sumerian civilization, King Urukagina ascended to power (Matthews, Noble, & Platt, 2014). One of the greatest achievement of King Urukagina in Sumerian culture is how he revived the failing economy of Sumerian. Even though King Urukagina Improved the failing economy of Sumerian, his successor failed to perpetuate his legalize. As a result, the second cultured called Akkadians emerged. This culture existed between 2350 and 2000 B.C. It is worthwhile noting that Akkadian culture incorporated some of the elements of Sumerian civilization. The ruler of Akkadians was Sargon. He reign lasted from 2334 to 2279 B.C. Sargon changed the name of Sumer to Agade, which was the most authoritative city in the world. However, Akkadia failed because his successor was unable to maintain it.Babylonia was the last culture, which came to rise after the downfall of Akkadia. Babylonia was similar to Sumerian civilization because it has an urban aspect. However, the basis of civilization in Babylonian was agriculture. The Babylonian culture existed between 2000 B.C. and 1600 B.C. The leader of Babylonians was Hammurabi. From 1792 to 1750, Hammurabi formulated legal codes, fines, and punishment for infractions. Lastly, He expanded the Babylonian city-state by uniting the entire southern Mesopotamia.2. Discuss three innovations that came about during the Bronze Age (3000-1200 B.C.) in Mesopotamia and EgyptAdvancement in technology, civilization, and the beginning of writing was the key aspect associated with the Bronze Age. It is essential to understand that only Mesopotamia and Egypt experienced a bronze age because both copper and tin were available, people were able to receive new technology and artefacts through trade, and mining and smelting took place (Bannerjee, 2017). The first innovation that occurs in Mesopotamia and Egypt during the Bronze Age was construction methods (Matthews, Noble & Platt, 2014). For instance, the paramount building style in Mesopotamia is using dried bricks in constructions. However, Egypt used stones in constructions. The second innovation was the writing system. The earliest writing system in Egypt and Mesopotamia was Hieroglyphics and Cuneiform respectively. The primary reason for developing Cuneiform was to maintain business reports related to Egyptian and Mesopotamia innovations (Bannerjee, 2017). Moreover, the ancient forms of written mathematics emerged during the Bronze Age. Classic examples of these forms were the multiplication tables and system of metrology (Bannerjee, 2017). The third innovation in Egypt and Mesopotamia was the development of soap-like substances. The Egyptian and Mesopotamians developed this substance by mixing animal fats, water, and wood ash (The History of Soap – Soap Inventors and Origins, n.d.). However, contemporary studies link the invention of soap-like substance to Sumerian civilization. Apart from the three, other innovations like cylinder seal, glass making, and brewing of wine emerged in Mesopotamia and Egypt. According to Mark (2015), Mesopotamians use Cylinder seal as an official signature during agreements and treaties. Ultimately, a comprehensive medical text of fertility, contraceptive, surgery, and other diseases emerged during the Bronze Age.3. Discuss how the culture of Mesopotamia and Egypt alike and different The political structure of Ancient Egypt differs from that of Mesopotamia. For instance, the ancient Egyptians regarded Pharaoh to be the representative of the gods. For that reason, they never looked directly at Pharaoh’s face when addressing him. Additionally, all the significant position in ancient Egypt belonged to Pharaoh’s relatives, and only his son could succeed him. Conversely, in ancient Mesopotamia, the society comprised of self-governing states. This form of leadership lasted until Sargon become a kingdom. However, Mesopotamians never regarded the king to be godly. Lastly, a majority of scribes in Mesopotamia were not affiliated with noble families (Chadwick, 2003). The second difference revolves around religion and culture. For example, in Mesopotamia, women were free to manage property and trade (Shelby, 2016). However, the Code of Hammurabi contained rules, which prohibited widows from inheriting their husbands’ properties. On the other hand, in ancient Egypt, women were free to inherit a certain percentage of their husbands’ properties when the die. The last difference between the two cultures centres on the writing system. The commonly used writing system in ancient Mesopotamia was cuneiform. The specific use of the cuneiform was to preserve records. For instance, ancient Mesopotamians used clay tablets to express cuneiform inform of the pie chart. On the contrary, the scribes in the ancient Egyptians expressed their concepts and ideas using hieroglyphics (Ancient Pages, 2016). Ancient civilization in most societies revolved around their belief systems. For example, Mesopotamian and Egyptian civilization depended on their belief systems. Therefore, the basis of similarities between the two cultures was religion and leadership. For instance, both two cultures had a place of worship and were polytheistic. Additionally, both the culture carried out extensive trading (Matthews, Noble & Platt, 2014). Generally speaking, the civilization of ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia was as a result of the long rivers, which surged across their land. Most Mesopotamians settled near Tigris and Euphrates, while the ancient Egyptians settled along River Nile. Therefore, they both engaged in trade. However, the cultural, religious, and political difference between these two cultures instituted the development of human communities.