The paper “Development of the Bank of the US, Non-Intercourse and Embargo Acts, Marshall’s Contributions to the Supreme Court" is a delightful example of an assignment on history. So, what were the views of Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson concerning the Bank of the United States? Both leaders had differing opinions on the subject. Hamilton’s initiative to create the Bank of the United States was not welcomed by all members of the Congress, some of its members feared that this bank would simply become a copy of the Bank of England. Jefferson believed that the Congress had no right to license and control the bank, while Hamilton argued that it would be constitutional to empower Congress in this way. Hamilton’s approach was in favor. Jefferson believed that funding the debt would create speculations and penalties for American citizens and that public would be against the federal excise tax. Hamilton and his supporters Federalists assumed that the strong centralization of power was necessary for the existence of the US, they also wanted to avoid localization of the regions and decentralization.
2. How did the Non-Intercourse Act and the Embargo Act differ?
The Embargo Act was pursuing the goal to exercise power on Europe, by restricting the US trade for all European countries. Jefferson believed that America would easily survive without European luxuries and that Europeans were in a more disadvantageous situation since they depended on American food. However this measure did not seem to work: American trade suffered significantly, federal revenues from trade fell significantly and Britain was able to replace American markets and goods easily. American merchants were looking for the loopholes in the Act and tried to bypass it. The Non-intercourse Act was different from Embargo Act in a way that it only restricted trade with Britain and France thus allowing the trade with other European countries. If Britain and France had agreed to respect American rights the trade with them could have been restarted. However this Act was also inadequate.
3. Why did most New Englanders oppose the US going to war with England in 1812?
The 1812 war with Britain was the most unpopular one in American history. New Englanders or Federalists were against this war for various reasons. First of all, they did not want Republicans to gain more power by means of this war and silence the oppositional voices. Federalists also wanted to avoid tyranny of Napoleon and the French alliance as a result of it. They also believed that Canada was the primary target of this war and refused to conquest this country. They believed the war was too costly, useless and could bring more harm than good, therefore they tried to oppose it.
4. What contributions did John Marshall make to the Supreme Court?
Marshall believed that the Supreme Court was rather conservative and did not support new democratic initiatives by banning new legislation. He precisely favored and protected business interests over the states. He granted various privileges for entrepreneurs and national governments and supported the market economy.
5. What was the principle of "nullification" that was proposed by John C. Calhoun?
Nullification basically allowed the states were allowed to abolish the federal laws if they believed that they were unconstitutional. This principle led to a Nullification Crisis between the South and the North. South Carolina claimed federal tariffs of 1828 and 1832 unconstitutional since they favored interests of the northern businesses over the south. Congress reaction followed quickly, and the President was granted powers to oblige states to follow the federal laws. This policy could have led to some cleavages between the states and could allow states to ban any law they did not like.
6. Why were the 5 "civilized nations" removed from the Southeast to what is now Oklahoma?
Five civilized nations (they are also called tribes): Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, and Seminole created a confederation in 1859. They were considered “civilized” since they have adopted many customs and traditions of the European colonists; they also maintained peace with their neighbors.
Under the Indian Removal Act of 1830 were forced to settle in the Indian Territory and leave their lands east of the Mississippi River. The American government was following its policy of detribalization of the Indian lands for a long period of time. Thomas Jefferson was pursuing the policy of assimilation and “civilization” of tribes as well. He expected Indians to adopt American agricultural lifestyle, thus making them dependent on trade with the US and give up their land later on.
The next American President Andrew Jackson pursued harsher politics towards Indians. In order to get the Indian lands, he forced the tribes to abandon their territory by adopting the Indian Removal Bill and Indian Removal Act. The Five Civilized Tribes had no choice but to leave their lands.