October 19, 2008Today, there are many accidents and catastrophes that occur in different parts of the world. Many people are dying and million worth of properties go down the drain. It has resulted to social, economic and environmental impacts to the affected people and locations. Different countries are developing policies that guides and manages its vulnerability to different accidents and catastrophes. Some common examples of accidents include the 7/7 London Bombing, 9/11 Twin Towers bombing which are accredited to terrorism. The aim of this report is to understand the nature of accidents and catastrophes and the classification of these catastrophes.
Furthermore, a case study of Preston is analyzed in depicting accidents that may occur. Moreover, the analysis goes beyond Preston and it will analyze two catastrophes that are well known, the lessons that were learned and legislations that were developed to manage and control such circumstances. Finally, discussion of the UK disaster management plans will be evident including legislations and reconstruction strategies that are developed in ensuring that the effects of the accident and catastrophe are brought into an understanding.
A catastrophe is an impact that causes a negative effect to the environment and the society. This means that catastrophes results due to lack of inappropriate managed risk. Hence, in our case a risk is a product that results due to vulnerability and hazard. However, a hazard that occurs in a low vulnerability area may not be termed as a catastrophe e. g. an uninhabited region. The impact of a catastrophe differs depending on countries. In the developing countries catastrophes are more devastating when compared to developed or industrialized countries. Generally, a catastrophe or an accident may be classified in two ways: Human-made and Natural.
These two types of catastrophes depend on the causative agents (Halley 1999, p. 16 - 17). Classification of CatastrophesMan made disasterThis is a type of disaster that has an influence to human inability and may result due to negligence, human intent, a failure or an error of a system. Hence, it means that the man made disasters are those which result from human hazards without any adequate emergency management measures that are in place. In most cases the man made disasters can be further be divided into two parts: sociological and technology disasters.
Sociological disasters results due to the activities of man behavior in regards to other beings. Some examples of sociological disasters are the terrorism, civil disorder, crime and war. On the other hand, technological disasters results in the advancement of human needs in developing the right equipments and accessories that fulfills their needs. Examples of technological disasters are the structural collapse, industrial hazards, transportation and hazardous materials. Natural DisastersThis type of disaster is a result of natural occurrence hazards which affects human activities.
The extent of damage or impact to human vulnerability results to poor or lack of the appropriate emergency management and may lead to human, environmental and financial losses. This means that the loss that will result due to natural disasters depends entirely on the capacity that the population will be able to resist and manage the disaster. This means that a natural disaster may not be caused by a natural hazard but the vulnerability of the inhabitants.