Part ITerms and MeaningsNational Woman’s Party: Led by Alice Paul and Lucy Burns in the 1913 a small group of five persons, the NWP gradually grew big enough to make its presence felt in the federal level. It emerged as the agent of the militant and political action during the final decade of the suffrage campaign, and was the main advocate of Equal Rights Amendment (ERA). League of Women Voters: was the successor of the NAWSA or the National American Woman Suffrage Association, the first president of which was Maud Wood Park.
The LMV played a lead role in organizing a major women’s lobby called the Women’s Joint Congressional Committee. However, LMV was opposed to NWP initially on the ERA or Equal Right Amendment issue. Flappers: The term "flapper" denotes young women of about 19-20 years, and initially was use in England after World War I. A flapper was the epitome of new age women in the 1920s; she broke all gender constructs and smoked, drank, danced, cast her vote, and no longer believed in grooming long hair. A flapper wore make-up, cut her hair short and was plucky. Internment Camps: President Roosevelt issued an Executive order 9066 in February 1942, which led to the establishment of 10 concentration camps to house 120,000 Japanese Americans in the United States.
Numerous Japanese Americans experienced the trauma of leaving their homes, and legitimated businesses to be confined to the internment camps located in Arizona, Utah, Wyoming, etc. and because of the shame of the disloyalty insinuated into their identities. Resettlement: This concerns the release of the Japanese American evacuees who were relocated in the year 1942, to internment camps or concentration camps in places like Arizona, Wyoming.
The War Relocation Authority began to encourage them to work outside the camps. However, the National Japanese American Student Relocation Council – a non government agency was instrumental in relocating groups of youngsters in colleges and then jobs outside. The older Japanese Americans were slower to follow, though the women were quite anxious to go outside and get on with life, putting the scars of internment behind them. Many young girls were successful too, and soon formed network of support system for those wanting to study and work outside the camps.
Encouraged by this support, slowly the Japanese American took to resettlement into various parts of the U. S. Little Rock Nine: In the year 1957, during the active period of the Civil Rights Movement, a group of nine students of African American origin were barred from entering the Little Rock Central High. It eventually turned into a crisis, with the protest of many white students. National Organization for Women: Was born out of National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, protesting the tabling of sex-discrimination and racial discrimination on the same platform, twenty eight women joined together formed NOW, which included Betty Friedan.
Its formation marked feminism’s rebirth, and supported the ERA. Las Chicanas: In the early 1970s a Chicano/Latino Community women’s organization called Las Chicanas was born of a few students and staff of the University of Washington. They focused on women’s issues related to women who struggled both against sexism and racism. The group, however, staged a walk-out in 1971 and separated from the Coalition of University Organizations for Women’s Rights, because the major women’s movements considered racism only as a secondary issue.