IntroductionA Virtual Private Network (VPN) refers to a network technology developed for creating a network connection that is secure over a public network such as service provider owned private networks and the internet. This technology is widely used by educational institutions, large corporations, and government agencies for enabling remote users to connect to a private network securely. Multiple sites can be connected using VPN just like WAN (Wide Area Network) over a large distance, and they are usually used for extending intranets worldwide with the aim of disseminating news and information to a wider user base.
VPN is extensively used by educational institutions to connect their satellite campuses which can be distributed nationally or internationally. The user requires authentication using a password and identification that must be unique to gain access to the private network. In order to gain access to a private network, there must be an authentication token. This is done through a PIN (Personal Identification Number), which is an authentication code that is unique and changes depending on the frequency after every 30 minutes. With VPN, a private network can be extended to a public network or internet.
Users can receive and send data across a public or shared networks as if their gadgets and computers are connected to the private network directly. Virtual Private Network provides its users with security, functionality, and network management. However, they can lead to new issues and VPN services which can violate the privacy of their users, especially the free ones when their usage are logged into and made available without their consent, or when money is made through user’s bandwidth sale to other users.
There are some Virtual Private Networks that allows employees secure access to a corporate intranet when they ae not within the office premises and others can connect separated geographical offices of the same company securely to create a single cohesive network. Some VPNs can also be used by individual internet users to circumvent censorship, geo-restrictions, secure their wireless transactions, and connect to proxy servers to protect their locations and personal identity. However, there are some internet sites which do not allow access via known VPNs to prevent geo-restriction circumvention.
With traffic encryption, virtual tunneling protocols or dedicated connections, it is possible to create a Virtual Private Network through the establishment of a point to point connection. There are benefits provided by a VPN that is available from the public Internet of a wide area network. Resources that are always available within the private network may be remotely accessed. Figure 1: Internet VPNLiterature Review Early data networks used remote connectivity of VPN-style through a leased line connections or dial-up modem together with virtual circuits of Asynchronous Transfer Mode, Frame Relay, supplied by a network owned and operated by telecommunication carriers.
These are not true VPN networks because they do not fully secure the data that is transmitted through logical data stream creations. Today, they have been replaced by Virtual Private Networks based on Networks and MPLS (Multiple Protocol Label Switching) networks. This change is because of increase in bandwidth and reduction of costs that the new technologies have provided, like fiber-optic networks and Digital Subscriber Line (DSL). Early Virtual Private Networks were associated with a point to point topology and did not connect or support broadcast domains and therefore services like Microsoft Windows NetBIOS were not supported fully to operate as they did on LAN.
In order to overcome these limitations, VPN variants were such as layer 2 tunneling protocols and VPLS (Virtual Private LAN Service) were developed.