xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxDiscuss how a community (not by locality) can be defined. Provide in your discussion an example of a community where chronic needs are being addressed. Community is a term that has not only received numerous definitions but also has various applications. Community development considers major meaning of a community as being identity-based, issue-based and geographical (Gofin & Gofin, 2010). It can be defined geographically, that is, by location. Identity-based and issue-based, refers to a community with a common social interests and attributes or people living with HIV. Effective HIV measures have been on the increased as communities have taken initiative to get involved in improving their health.
People living with HIV have come together to address the challenges and gaps they are facing as a community, support their families and individual. People have been involved in planning, implementing, designing, monitoring and evaluating and this has been the individuals feel part of the community. Ways used to maximize the involvement of the community include; communication and mobilization of people making them aware of the common needs and concerns and therefore, able to take the necessary action, community planning that will assist in identifying priorities in HIV-prevention and measures to be taken to decrease the spread.
According to Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) (2006), the community has assisted both individual and groups through creating supporting community environment, mitigating discrimination and stigma and support in treatment. Therefore, a community may be defined as a group or groups on individual who are ready to achieve set objectives collectively rather as an individual. Regardless of whether its motive is to respond to a chronic need, pursuing of community development has shown that communities can solution through translating the ideas into action. Discuss with reference to the literature the community development concepts of participation and empowerment.
Community development is an approach of the MDGs that aims to improve the living conditions of people in a particular area (Redzuan & Nikkhah, 2009). It aims at building lives of communities by involving them, emphasising on helping them change and develop in ways which they themselves desire, and with material aid of which they are willing to make effective use (Redzuan & Nikkhah, 2009).
Though there is a tendency to mix up these two concepts especially due to the continuum of activities intertwining the two, each has its stake in community development and without them it could not be achieved (Samah & Aref, 2011). Community participation concept has been described by scholars along a continuum, as a means at one end of the contunuum, towards describing it as a process with some element of people’s control at the other end (Samah& Aref, 2011). As a means participation may be considered as an input toward goals.
In mobilising community participation, the implementation model or approach, either top-bottom or bottom-top determines the results- active or passive. The real meaning of popular participation is an active process in which the people concerned pool their efforts and whatever resources they decide to pool together, to attain objectives they set for themselves (Redzuan & Nikkhah, 2009). As an end, participation is a process in which the initiative consumers are fully involved in shaping and building the initiative from the bottom-up approach.