1. The main stages of fire development in a compartment are: Ignition, Growth, Flashover, Fully-Developed, and Decay. The Growth phase occurs from Ignition until all combustible materials are affected by the fire, either through actual burning or heating near to their combustion point. Flashover is the rapid phase between Growth and Fully-Developed, when all combustible materials in the compartment ignite. In the Fully-Developed phase, all combustible materials are burning and the maximum temperature of the fire is reached. In the Decay phase, the available fuel and oxygen rapidly diminishes until it is gone, burning the fire out unless more fuel or oxygen becomes available.
(NFPA, 2005, p. 28; APAC, 2009)2.It is necessary to consider fire hazard progression in managing evacuation because the progression may force a change in the planned evacuation route once a fire has started. For example, smoke or flames spreading faster or in areas that have not been accounted for in the evacuation plan might force people to seek different escape routes, increasing the time and distance to escape the fire. (Rasbash, Ramachandran, & Kandola, 2004, p. 302)3.Evacuation is of paramount importance during the Growth phase of a fire, as soon after Ignition as the fire is detected.
Studies in human behaviour in fire emergencies have shown that building occupants often delay the start of their evacuation – perhaps hoping it is a false alarm, or a minor situation that can be controlled with no inconvenience to them. (Proulx, 2007) And if this delay is added to a delay in sounding the alarm and ordering an evacuation in the first place, the risk that some occupants will encounter smoke or flame and possibly become trapped increases. 4.Available Safe Egress Time is the amount of time available for evacuation before fire conditions would make the occupied areas and escape routes unusable.
Required Safe Egress Time is the amount of time actually required by people to be able to move from where they are when the fire starts to a safe area. In a properly-designed building, the RSET will be less than the ASET. (n. b., it says on the exam to use a diagram? I don’t know what that means)5.(This question says “use the information provided in the table below” but there is no “table below” in the file of questions you sent)6.(This question says “using SPFE formula – see handout”, which is not in the questions you sent. )7.
(This question cannot be done until 5 & 6 are completed. )8.Five occupant characteristics that influence behaviour during evacuations are age, gender, physical and mental abilities, whether the occupants are asleep or awake, and occupant density in the building. (Chu, et al. , 2001) These characteristics determine how the occupants will behave, for example, whether they panic, pause to wait for information or to collect belongings, gather together, or evacuate smoothly.
9.The five factors that influence travel time are: The evacuation distance – How far a person must travel to reach a safe area. The characteristics of the evacuation route – How wide are corridors and doorways that must be passed; whether or not there are stairs, and whether the person must travel up or down. The mobility of the occupants – Age, gender, and the physical and mental abilities of the occupants have an effect on travel time.
A disabled elderly person, for example, is much slower than an able-bodied younger adult. The activities of the occupants also affect their travel time, such as whether they are residents or workers, or whether they are asleep or awake at the time of the fire. The number of available escape routes – If there are safe alternate routes, travel time is reduced because the number of people trying to evacuate in any one direction is fewer. Population density of the building – Travel time increases with the number of people in the building.