(A) Small Flame ExperimentThe importance of this experiment is its ability to determine the ignitability of materials and whether certain materials have met the fire standards provided by national and EC regulations. The experiment involved the following apparatus to come up with the desired results: combustion chamber, ignition burner, specimen support arrangements, and two specimen holders. Test subjects are clamped to the specimen holder in the combustion chamber and are placed according to the area of interest. Specimen holders allow the samples to be suspended, tilted to some degrees, or can be laid flat which all depends on the type of exposure to be used for the experiment (surface exposure and edge exposure).
Samples that melt or shrink away from the fire without igniting are held in the secondary specimen holder. Two small fires can be introduced to the sample depending on the type of materials used. For class E materials, small flames are introduced for 20 seconds and the test is terminated 20 seconds after the flame is removed. For classes B, C, and D, small flames are introduced for 30 seconds and the test is terminated 60 seconds after the flame is removed.
Minimum number of specimens of building products should be six and the materials that are to be tested should be cut lengthwise and crosswise. Data gathered for analysis are the position of the applied flame, whether ignition occurs, and the height of the flame tip from the application point. Additional standards are required for samples that shrink away from the flame. (B) Lab Cone The importance of this experiment is its ability to identify the heat release rate of experimental fires as well as other important factors such as heat of combustion, ignition time, levels of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, and the amount of smoke present in the fire.
The experiment uses a cone calorimeter system that allows experimentation, data gathering, and analysis to take place simultaneously. The system is equipped with measuring experimenting tools such as the load cell, spark igniter, cone heater, exhaust blower, and exhaust hood. It also involves measuring and calibration equipments like soot sample tube, oxygen analyzer, weighing device, and heat flux meter.
Results of the experiment are collected and analyzed using the data collection and analysis system which needs to be calibrated before each experiment. All the initial data and information were entered in the data analysis system. Samples were tested for four different values of heat flux which are at 25kW/m2, 35kW/m2, 45kW/m2, and 55kW/m2. The duration of the experiment is very brief. When the test sample is placed in the appropriate holder, the ignition timer is initiated at the same time the spark plug is turned on.
The time when the sample sustains flame is recorded and the spark plug is moved out from the flame. Cone calorimeter results as well as graphs for sample with filename greencarpet showed comprehensive analysis on the heat of combustion, ignition time, levels of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, heat release rate, and the amount of smoke present in the fire.