IntroductionFire results in destruction of the home and of treasured personal belongings. According to Communities and Local Government (CGI) statistics shows that UK suffers around 500 fatalities and around 13,000 injuries in over 52,000 dwelling fires in year 2008. Though there is a grate decrease in dwelling fires from past years but still fire destruction need to control. Essential Fire Safety Measures are safety installations in a building that helps in reducing risk to life and property in the event of fire. Fire safety measures include those safety measures that are planned during the construction of a building or implemented in structures that are already standing. Means of warning and escapeThe building should be designed and constructed in such a manner that there are appropriate provisions for the early warning of fire, and appropriate means of escape in case of fire.
Fire measures should be designed in such a way which limits the rapid spread of smoke and fumes. The basic principles for the design of means of escape are: From most situations, there should be alternative means of escape; Where direct escape to a place of safety is not possible, then it should be possible to reach a place of relevant safety, such as a protected stairway, which is on a route to an exit, within a reasonable travel distance; Unprotected escape routes should be limited in extent of that people do not have to travel excessive distances while exposed to the immediate danger of fire and smoke. Protected stairways should design in such a manner that flames, smoke and gases must be excluded from escape routes by fire resisting construction and doors or by an appropriate smoke control system, or by a combination of both of these methods. Fire Alarm SystemThe installation of smoke alarms, automatic fire detection and alarm systems in dwelling houses can increase the level of safety by automatically giving an early warning of fire.
According to Building Regulation 2000 Document BA large dwelling house having more than one storey which exceeded 200m2 should be fitted with a fire detection and fire alarm system. Where new habitable rooms are provided above the ground floor level, or where they are provided at ground floor level and there is no final exit from the new room, a fire detection and fire alarm system should be installed.
Smoke alarms should be provided in the circulation spaces within 7.5m of the door between sleeping spaces and places where fires are most likely to start(e. g. kitchens and living rooms) to pick up smoke in early stages of a fire. There should be at least one smoke alarm on every story of a dwelling house. If more than one alarm is installed then they should be linked so that detection of smoke or heat by one unit operates the alarm signal in all of them. Smoke alarms/detectors should be sited so that they are ceiling-mounted and at least 300mm from walls and light fittings.
The sensor in ceiling-mounted devices should between 25mm and 600mm below the ceiling (25-150mm in the case of heat detectors or heat alarms). Smoke alarms should not be fixed over a stair or any other opening between floors. They should not be fixed next to or directly above heaters or air-conditioning outlets. They should also avoid bathrooms, showers, cooking areas or garages, or any other place where steam, condensation or fumes could give false alarms.