Article Name: A home-based nurse-coached inspiratory muscle training intervention in heart failureAuthors: Cynthia A. Padula, PhD, RN, CSa, 4, Evelyn Yeaw, PhD, RNa, Saurabh Mistry, MSb Publication Details: Applied Nursing Research 22 (2009) 18–25The paper is a research on the nurse coached 3 month program, called the IMT program (Inspiratory Muscle Training Program) which helps in improving the strength of inspiratory muscles. The research is based on a selected group of people who were analyzed and outcomes were developed with scope for further research and study. Validity of the research can be judged by the target of the research and the way it is achieved.
Validity of this particular research can be evaluated through the usage of the hypothesis and the research questions used, along with how the data was gathered. The way the research was conducted says a lot about the validity of the research, particularly if the researcher him or herself did not get involved in the research that reduces the validity of the research. In this case, the researcher evaluated the various elements of the experiment as an observer and an experimenter, increasing the reliability and validity of the research.
(Padula & Evelyn, 2007)Heart failure is a disease that affects millions of people in the USA and causes hospitalization as well. The research conducted shows the result of the IMT program, conducted over a span of three months, understanding whether the nurse coached program works or not. Patients experience breathlessness which has a direct association with heart failure. This is basically a result of weakening respiratory and skeletal muscles due to inactivity leading to breathlessness or increased ventilation during resting as well as strenuous periods, like exercise.
(Padula & Evelyn, 2007)The result of the experiment were produced through valid research methods, in which eight subjects were chosen, out of which five were randomized while others were not. The three month program had ninety minute sessions thrice weekly, in which, fourteen patients were selected with chronic subtle HF classes (II-IV) for the training protocol. The maximum amount of inspiratory pressure for IMT that the patients were subject to was 30% for exactly twenty minutes. There was a major improvement noted in the patients as there was a increase in the maximum inspiratory pressure during the activity.
The training went on for five to fifteen minutes on a thrice weekly basis for eight weeks. The only problem was that there no control group to measure this improvement against. (Padula & Evelyn, 2007)The subjects which were randomized were placed in two groups, one of them being the control group and other the experimental group. The experiment group had usage of pressure loads while the control group had a maximum amount of pressure being used at zero to fifteen percent.
All the subjects being used in the experiment faced chronic subtle class II and IV heart failure. 20 patients were taken and compliance testing was done on them. Data collection was done through a reliability tested inspiratory force meter measure. Mean was taken out of five readings to make the data collection more reliable. The control group used an instrument which had an internal timer in it. The two groups were basically created in accordance with the self efficiency theory by Bandara. (Padula & Evelyn, 2007)