Second Language Acquisition – Annotated Bibliography Example

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The paper "Second Language Acquisition" is a good example of an annotated bibliography on education. Sayer, P & Ban, R 2014, ‘ Young EFL students’ engagements with English outside the classroom’ , ELT Journal, vol. 68, no. 3, pp. 321-329. A brief summary of the article In their article, Sayer and Ban (2014) carried out a study to determine how young students of English as a foreign language (EFL) engaged with English outside the classroom. The study was informed by the perception among some quarters that since very little time was dedicated to English as part of the EFL programme, the students had little or no interaction with the target language while out of the classroom, and as such, it was deemed that the EFL programme had little if any, the chance of success. Sayer and Ban (2014) were invited by the Ministry of Education in Mexico to study the impact of the EFL programme on the target learners.

The authors, instead of only looking at the outcomes of tests to determine the students’ performance and improvement, chose to use an ethnographic approach. They interacted with the students and their parents to determine whether the students used English outside school. According to the results of the study by Sayer and Ban (2014), contrary to the views of teachers that the students had limited exposure to English, the learners were exposed to the language through other means outside the class.

Some of the ways in which the students interacted with the English language included watching English movies through channels such as YouTube, playing games with English instructions, communicating with relatives who live in the United States, listening to music done in English, and using Google Translate to translate English words into their own language. As such, Sayer and Ban (2014, p.

328), conclude that one way of evaluating the success of EFL programmes is to look at the various ways in which the learners engage with the language outside the classroom. More importantly, the authors argue that teachers would benefit if they took a more ethnographic approach when teaching EFL in order to find out what their students do with English in the absence of a teacher. Critical reflection The article by Sayer and Ban (2014) gives a good insight into how learners of a second language can use the language on their own without necessarily having to be in the classroom.

The article’ s findings show that learners of EFL do not have to depend entirely on what their teachers teach in the classroom in order to grasp English. This is because there are many other instances outside the classroom in which the learners have an opportunity to interact with or use the English language. Specifically, watching English videos, reading English books, communicating with family members who are speakers of English, using applications such as Google Translate on the Internet, playing video games with English instructions, reading product instruction manuals and labels that are in English and listening to music performed in English are some of the ways in which EFL learners have an opportunity to interact with the target language. I agree with Sayer and Ban’ s (2014) findings regarding the role that the environment outside the classroom plays in the EFL learners’ use of the English language.

This is because more often than not, the learners are exposed to other ways in which they are able to use the target language.

For example, the learners are likely to have friends or relatives who speak English and are also likely to interact with different forms of media that expose them to the language, such as Facebook, YouTube, movies, video games and so forth.

References

Agulló, GL 2006, ‘Overcoming age-related differences’, ELT Journal, vol. 60, no. 4, pp. 365-373.

Ehrman, ME, Leaver, BL & Oxford, RL 2003 ‘A brief overview of individual differences in second language learning’, System, vol. 31, pp. 313–330.

Ferdous, T 2013, Use of English beyond the classroom wall: a study of undergraduate students’ out-of-class English learning activities (Master’s thesis), BRAC University, BRAC University, Dhaka, viewed 25 April 2017,

Lee, RA, Browne, KC & Kusumoto, Y 2011, ‘Measuring EFL learners’ environment; English contact and use outside the classroom at a Japanese international university’, Polyglossia, vol. 20, pp. 15-25.

Sayer, P & Ban, R 2014, ‘Young EFL students’ engagements with English outside the classroom’, ELT Journal, vol. 68, no. 3, pp. 321-329.

Tiittanen, M 2015, ‘The impact of the use of English outside the classroom by mandarin and Tamil ESL learners in their accuracy with the simple past tense’, ELTWorldOnline.com, vol. VII, pp. 1-20.

van der Slik, FWP, van Hout, RWNM & Schepens, JJ 2015, ‘The gender gap in second language acquisition: gender differences in the acquisition of Dutch among immigrants from 88 countries with 49 mother tongues’, PLoS ONE, vol. 10, no. 11, p. 1-22.

Whitehead, TL 2005, ‘Basic
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ethnographic research methods’, Ethnographically Informed Community and Cultural Assessment Research Systems (EICCARS) Working Paper Series, viewed 25 April 2017, .

Zafar, S & Meenakshi, K 2012, ‘Individual learner differences and second language acquisition: a review’, Journal of Language Teaching and Research, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 639-646.

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