The paper "Net Communication" is a perfect example of an annotated bibliography on information technology.
Van Dijck, J. (2009) ‘Users like you Theorizing agency in user-generated content’, Media, Culture & Society, vol. 31 (1), pp.41-58
The article of Joseph van Dijck speaks about the appearance of a new type of media consumer -prosumer, a notion which attributes creative, productive, and professional aspects to consuming. Interaction of numerous people on such web platforms as Wikipedia, YouTube or MySpace is supposed to change the world according to experts` opinion. However, further, it is discussed that any media presupposes intrinsic engagement of the viewer no matter whether it is participation in fan clubs or creating covers on the songs. What differs new consumers from the old is an opportunity to receive feedback regarding their products due to cheap and accessible digital technologies. YouTube is a perfect example of the site, where people can have their videos not only viewed but also assessed. Moreover, not all viewers automatically turn into active creators. There are mostly collectors who only share content, spectators who passively consume it, critics who express their attitude regarding the content of the others, and joiners who join social networks without any contributions. Therefore, the author suggests that it is impossible to consider participation as an active contribution to the media. However, media users do interact by ascribing themselves to group identities in order to share “mediated” experience. They also provide site UGC platforms with their personal information while registering and in such a way create viewers` profiles. There also appears a controversial question regarding the professionalism and the payment to the content creators since these issues are not well discussed and developed in modern society. Forming communities with their special goals, tastes, and preferences users shape the sites becoming creators and arbiters of the content on them. Moreover, it is impossible to neglect advertisers in media since market forces control production and distribution of the content. The article is useful in terms of the audience definition; it also shapes the understanding of content users progress and perspectives.
Deuze, M. (2007) “Convergence culture in the creative industries”, International Journal of Cultural Studies, 10(2), 243-263.
In his, article Deuze explores the correlation between media production and consumption as well as the trends which this convergence creates. He also exemplifies his observation with the cases of existing web sites and companies. The author thinks how simultaneous resisting and enforcing of the media can influence viewers significantly, and inevitably changes their perception of media. He emphasizes blurring between media production and consumption and points out that this phenomenon inevitably leads to including and creating people`s own media formats. Such opportunity was granted to for instance MySpace or CyWorld users. Concluding that media consumption today involves participation, co-creation, and modification; the author defines a new type of media ecology. Deuze states that convergence culture becomes a mechanism of revenue increase for the companies and at the same time enables people to enact some kind of community to interpret media messages and signals more effectively. The author differentiates three types of content: user-generated, user-controlled, and user-directed. The article also points to the role of creative industries, such as advertising, journalism, and public relationships, which point that the roles of professional producers are diminished in such content creation. Moreover, the roles of creators and consumers are interchangeable. In conclusion, Deuze underlines the importance of convergence of media in our particular time for technology, politics, ecology, and art leading to further blurring of person`s actions, such as work, life, and play. The processes inevitably lead to the appearance of new types of media as well as new types of consumers. The article not only gives an understanding of the existing processes of media but also forecasts major trends in media development.
Gehl, R. (2011) “The archive and the processor: The internal logic of Web 2.0”, New Media and Society, 13(8), 1228-1244.
Gehl introduces and describes a completely new phenomenon –Web 2.0 business model which encourages users` to active participation in the content creation by sharing, assessing information, and creating digital content. Later Web 2.0 sites use this attention in order to advertise something to the users. It presupposes that there is no media or authority edition and leads to the free democratic running of such platforms. However, there is a certain contradiction between interfaces of Web 2.0 sites and the storage of the data which users provide. The owners of the storage servers, therefore, become influential people since they can transform this data into information. The author claims that archiving the activities of Web 2.0 site users leads to building social power in the world. Gehl further explores the roots of processor/storage dichotomy and exemplifies his observations with real existing case studies: Amazon, NASA Clickworkers project, and Digg. The author points to the controversial aspect of such sites since the users provide their owners with valuable information becoming solely producers. Thus, the power, which certain companies achieve, can be compared to political powers, and users must take it into account. The article concentrates on the other side of Web 2.0 popularity-the owners of archives and raises many important questions such as personal rights, security, and informational power.