Leadership in a Correctional Environment – Annotated Bibliography Example

The paper "Leadership in a Correctional Environment" is an excellent example of an annotated bibliography on social science. Bennett, C., Perry, J., & Lapworth, T. (2010). Leadership skills for nurses working in the criminal justice system. Nursing Standard, 24(4), 35-40. This article investigates leadership skills and qualities of nursing professionals involved in the criminal justice system with the view to effecting change in service provision and engendering a culture of empowerment in the offender healthcare setting (Bennett, Perry, & Lapworth, 2010). The authors note that change for nursing professionals working in prison settings is influenced by organizational and political astuteness, capacity to develop partnerships, and strong leadership skills. Some of the leadership styles discussed in the article include autocratic, bureaucratic, charismatic, transactional, transformational, and situational. Some core leadership qualities discussed in the article include setting direction (incorporates qualities such as intellectual flexibility, political astuteness and drive for outcomes), delivering services (requires leading change through people, holding individuals to account, empowering others, effective and strategic influencing, and collaborative working), as well as personal qualities (include self-belief, self-awareness, self-management, drive for improvement and personal integrity) (Bennett et al., 2010).
LaFrance, T.C., & Placide, M. (2010). Sheriffs’ and police chiefs’ leadership and management decisions in the local law enforcement budgetary process: An exploration. International Journal of Police Science & Management, 12(2), 238-255. The aim of this exploratory quasi-experimental study is to investigate how sheriffs and police chiefs involve themselves in decision-making during the annual budgeting process. LaFrance and Placide (2010) differentiate management from leadership by arguing that, while management revolves around keeping the organizational status quo and focusing on control and administration, leadership is about developing and communicating a course of action that prepares an entity for change. The results of the study acknowledge that (1) the process of communicating a vision is achieved through education and transparency, (2) mutual trust is crucial in times of financial strain related to budgeting, (3) the incentive/punishment structures are different for sheriffs and police chiefs in a prisoner’s dilemma, and (4) the role of elected officials is that of policy formation while that of appointed executives revolves around policy implementation. 
Montgomery, M. (2006). Leadership in a correctional environment. Corrections Today, 68(5), 38-42. Having realized that most prison systems around the world fail because they are ill-managed, under-managed or not managed at all, the author of this article underscores the need for the development of sound leadership in the management of prison systems. The author singles out transformational leadership as one of the most effective leadership styles in a correctional environment as it not only meets the challenges and changing missions of modern corrections, but also brings about changes in individuals and organizations by the leaders demonstrating holistic awareness with the view to ensuring consistency of thoughts, feelings, and actions (Montgomery, 2006). Overall, the author argues that correctional leaders must concentrate on the big picture, observe their areas of responsibility frequently, resolve problems quickly, respond to every inquiry, demonstrate integrity, and nurture their staff. 
Potter, T.K. (2001). Teacher leadership. Journal of Correctional Education, 52(3), 120-125. Upon the realization that education is an important component in the rehabilitation of offenders, this author designed an exploratory study which combined qualitative and quantitative research approaches to investigate the leadership practices of educational programs in corrections instructors. The leadership practices that should be exhibited by teacher leaders in prison settings and other criminal justice areas include (1) exercising flexibility, (2) believing in own capabilities, (3) challenging the process to change the status quo, (4) inspiring a shared vision to make a difference, (5) enabling others to act by fostering collaboration and building spirited teams, (6) modeling the way, and (7) encouraging the heart to keep determination alive (Potter, 2001). These leadership practices are employed in prison systems and other core areas of the criminal justice system to expose learners to a multiplicity of perspectives from which to learn.
Wuestewald, T., & Steinheider, B. (2012). Police managerial perceptions of organizational democracy: A matter of style and substance. Police Practice & Research, 13(1), 44-58. This study revolves around re-investigating an organizational democracy proposal or scheme undertaken in an urban police agency in the United States with the view to understanding police managerial perceptions of organizational democracy and leadership. Results of the study which utilizes a case study research design underscore “the importance of executive leadership, clearly defined roles, structural boundaries and the affirmation of managerial authority when integrating vertical and horizontal leadership” (Wuestewald & Steinheider, 2012, p. 44). Some of the challenges that are likely to arise when attempting to liberalize police administration include lack of effective team dynamics, inadequacies of executive leadership, lack of group cohesion, lack of team synergy and effective problem-solving mechanisms, natural apathy, as well as lack of a clear definition of internal boundaries.