Fighting Drug Trafficking in the Carribbean ( Jamaica and Trinidad) – Annotated Bibliography Example
DRUG2 Fighting Drug Trafficking In the Caribbean (Jamaica and Trinidad) Annotated Bibliography
1). Svelke, C.R., Wyler, L.S., Beittel, J.S. and Sullivan M P. “Latin America and the Caribbean Illicit Drug Trafficking and US Counter Drug Programs” Congressional Research May 12, 2011 retrieved from www.fas.org.syp/crs/row/R41215pdf.
This is a comprehensive review prepared for the US Congress of American efforts to curb the production of illicit drugs primarily in Latin America, and their flow into the US threatening citizen security there with their harmful medical effects and association with crime, both organized and otherwise. Although marijuana is exported from Jamaica, the major threat of Caribbean countries including Jamaica and Trinidad is their role as trans shipper of hard drugs from South America to the US. Since the mid 1970s the US concentrated on reducing the supply especially by drug crop eradication with only mixed success because traffickers countered by altering their cultivation patterns, production techniques and trafficking routes to avoid detection. The Obama administration has broadened the focus to citizen security and institution-building to get local populations and governments more involved in anti drug trafficking activities. This includes the Caribbean Security Initiative where the US government assists Caribbean countries such as Jamaica and Trinidad with rule of law, anti-corruption, community and youth development programs with funding based on the level of compliance.
2) Hall, Arthur “Drug Trafficking Driving Up Crime In The Caribbean and Central America” The Gleaner Feb. 29, 2912 retrieved from jamaicagleaner.com/g;leaner/20120229/end/end91html.
This short article in Jamaica’s national newspaper, The Gleaner, states that the 2011 International Narcotics Board report claims that drug trafficking poses an even greater threat to the security of the people of Jamaica, the rest of the Caribbean and Central America, making it one of the most dangerous places in the world because of its’ role as a transit hub for drugs going from South to North America. The report also notes the aggravating factors of political and police corruption. It is interesting to note that this situation persists in spite of the joint military/police operation in Tivoli Gardens, Kingston, Jamaica in May, 2010 leading to the arrest of drug lord, Dudus Coke and many of his henchmen, leading to a 40 per cent reduction in the local homicide rate. While this is significant , it is still much higher than North American rates, indicating there are still other drug trafficking gangs creating havoc.
3). “Caribbean Remains Drug Trafficking Concern” Caribbean 360 Mar. 5, 2012. retrieved from www.caribbean360.com/news/268099html
This online news article advises that the 2011 International Control Strategy Report states that Jamaica continues to be the largest Caribbean supplier of marijuana to the US and is a transit point for cocaine trafficked from South to North America. It discusses the exacerbating role of domestic and international organized crime , police corruption and illegal firearms from the US. It states that, unfortunately, Jamaica’s financial constraints have resulted in a decrease in narcotics seizures and marijuana eradication efforts in the past 3 years. These constraints are obvious since Jamaica recently had to borrow from the International Monetary Fund. In Trinidad drug control efforts are hampered by similar financial constraints and could benefit from increased US aid and technology in the provision of border control systems.
4). “Drug Trade “Violent Crime Threatening Caribbean Nations Says Ban” UN News Center Feb. 9, 2009UN News Center Feb. 9 retrieved from www.un.org/apps/newsstory.asp?News ID-29831-caribbean.
This short article from the United Nations News Center concerns an address by Secretary General Ban-Ki-Moon to the opening of the 5th general assembly of the UN and the regional Caribbean Community (CARICOM). He contrasts the beauty of the region and the warmth of its’ people with the scourge of the drug trafficking economies which dwarf the legal economies of the region. He laments the high crime rates, especially murder among the highest in the world caused by the illicit trade. His observations are very accurate because in Jamaica, just prior to the massive police/military operation of 2010 to arrest drug lord Dudus Coke, the annual murder rate was close to 2000 for a country of only 3 million. After the operation it dropped 40 per cent , still very high, largely because there were still other drug gangs on the lose. But it illustrated the close connection between drug trafficking and violent crime.
5) McGreal, Chris “The Battle for Kingston, Jamaica” The Guardian May 28, 2010 retrieved from www.globalpost.com/dispatch/the-americas//jamaica-drug-violence.
This is an excellent article in the respected UK newspaper, The Guardian, graphically describing the massive military/police incursion into Tivoli Gardens, Kingston to arrest drug criminals, especially Dudus Coke, in accordance with the US extradition demands. It also explains the loyalty of the residents to Coke even though they knew his riches were obtained illegally. Because the state was unable or unwilling to provide needed infrastructure and social services in the community, Coke stepped in and did so. In effect he became leader of a “state within a state” and Tivoli Gardens was what is known in Jamaica as a garrison community with Coke using his influence to ensure the Jamaican Labor Party and specifically its’ leader Prime Minister Bruce Golding retained power. This article illustrates that Caribbean nations in order to fight the evils associated with drug trafficking, must make sure that communities are reasonably well provided with needed infrastructure and social services in order that criminal gangs cannot step in and fill the vacuum.
1). Svelke, C.R., Wyler, L>S>, Beutel. J.S. and Sullivan, M.P. “Latin America and the Caribbean Illicit Drug Trafficking and US Counter Drug Programs” Congressional Research Service May 12, 2011 retrieved from www.fas.org/crs/row/R41215pdf.
2) Hall, Arthur “Drug Trafficking Driving Up Crime in the Caribbean and Central America” The Gleaner Feb. 29, 2012 retrieved from jamaicagleaner.com/gleaner/20120229/ end91html.
3) “Caribbean Remains Drug Trafficking Concern” Caribbean 360 Mar. 5, 2012 retrieved from www.caribbean360.com/news/268099html.
4.”Drug Trade Violent Crime Threatening Caribbean Nations Says Ban” UN News Center Feb. 9, 2009 retrieved from www.um.org/apps/newsstory.asp?NewsID-29831-caribbean.
5) McGreal, Chris “The Battle for Kingston, Jamaica The Guardian May 25, 2010 retrieved from www.globalpost.com/dispatch/the-americas/jamaica-drug-violence..