The paper "Segregation in the Public Schools in Chicago" is a wonderful example of an annotated bibliography on education. The schools in Chicago areas as compared to those in the metro regions are some of the most segregated schools in the country. To some extent, they are considered the most segregated. This has great impacts for policies but these implications are not really known to people neither do they know what to expect. This paper outlines various articles in an attempt to understand segregation in public schools in Chicago. Annotated Bibliography: Segregation in the Public Schools in Chicago Bradshaw, C.
P., Mitchell, M. M., OBrennan, L. M., & Leaf, P. J. (2010). Multilevel explorations of factors contributing to the overrepresentation of black students in office discipline referrals. Journal of Education Psychology, 102(2), 508-520. This is a study that analyzed about 6,988 children at 21 elementary schools and in 381 classrooms as a randomized trial in behavioral interventions in schools which was aimed at identifying the factors that lead to overrepresentation of black students in the office disciplinary referrals both at individual and classroom levels.
The results of the analysis indicated that African American students were likely to get office disciplinary referrals than their white counterparts even after controlling teacher ethnicity and other classroom factors, thus a match between the race of students and teachers id not reduce the risk of referrals for the black students. Eitle, T. M., & Eitle, D. J. (2004). Inequality, segregation, and overrepresentation of African Americans in-school suspensions. Sociological Perspectives, 47, 269-287. This article examined the relationship between segregating students and having so many African American students suspended, after controlling school disorder rate.
The result was that higher levels of segregation corresponded with black students’ suspensions imbalance at lower levels. Schools in segregated districts also have a low level of imbalance in suspension among African American students. Brighouse, H. (2007). Educational justice and socio-economic segregation in schools. Journal of Philosophy of Education, 41(4), 575-590. Brighouse talks about racial injustices caused by socio-economic segregation. Its description is more focused on the correlation between poor neighborhoods and poor education in the neighborhoods. This article is perfect to argue in the segregation of students in Chicago schools as it provides an interesting viewpoint that showcases how economic segregation is happening in society today.
Jost, K. (2007). Racial diversity in public schools. CQ Researcher, 745-768. This article talks about a magnet school opened in a poor neighborhood. A problem arose when a white girl tried to get a place of admission in the school and was denied because of her skin color. Eventually, the school had to allow the girl into the school after confrontations about the issue. They realized they were wrong in doing so.
This article is an example of the segregation of white kids and their discrimination in public schools as opposed to the usual African American children being discriminated against. Jost, K. (2004). School desegregation. CQ Researcher, 345-372. Jost Kenneth, in his article, talks about two students who were denied admissions to a school due to their skin complexion. As a result, the school in question was forced to come up with a program that had guidelines on the number of students that a school could have from different races.
The guidelines specified that one school was not allowed to exceed a certain percentage of students from one race. Mayer, S. (2002). How economic segregation affects children's educational attainment. Social Forces, 81(1), 153-176. Mayer’ s article is a description of segregation between poor schools and wealthy school districts. It gives an explanation about the situations, providing facts, about attaining education in a public school situated in a wealthy district as differentiated by poor district schools. This is article showcases that segregation is not only in the classroom level but at the school level.
Skiba, R. J., Horner, R. H., Chung, C., Rausch, M. K., Mary, S., & Tobin, T. (2011). The race is not neutral: A national investigation of African American and Latino disproportionality in school discipline. School Psychology Review, 40(1), 85-107. Skiba, et al explored the patterns of referrals in office disciplinary actions among a nationally represented sample of middle schools and elementary schools in Chicago for at least one year. Ethnic disparities were found to exist in classroom referrals as well as administrative consequences for both levels of schools for African American students while the level of discrimination in Latino students was prevalent in the middle schools.
Though it was discovered that minor infraction did not have a probability of receiving less severe punishments, it was clear that Latino and African American students were much more likely to get a suspension or expulsion for this minor infraction. Ascher, C. (1993). The changing face of racial isolation and desecration urban schools. ERIC/CUE Digest, 91, 1-3. This article discusses issues in desegregation in schools as a result of demographical, research and policy changes.
It focuses on the changes in student diversity in schools located in areas where there is urban surrounding. This information is important to know the changes that are taking place in regard to desegregation in schools as a result of its location. It is important to compare the information and see what the contributing factors are. Powers, J. (2014). On separate paths: The Mexican American and African American legal campaigns against school segregation. ERIC/American Journal of Education, 121(1), 29-55. The author combines research synthesis and her original research to explore legal campaigns on segregation.
The author identifies three differences between Mexican American and African American that had implications in the legal strategies that were taken in 1954 in the case of Brown v. Board of Education. These were the legal whiteness of Mexican Americans, language “ racialization” and extra-legal versus de jure segregation. Donato, R., & Hanson, J. S. (2012). Legally white, socially Mexican: The politics of de jure and de facto school segregation in the American Southwest. ERIC/Harvard Educational Review, 82(2), 202-225. The two authors argue in their article that even though Mexican Americans are legally classified as whites, the public in America did not recognize that and treated them as socially colored in communities and schools.