The paper "Refugee Challenges, Stressors, and Mental Health" is a worthy example of an annotated bibliography on social science. This paper presents an annotated bibliography on the stressors affecting the mental health of migrants and refugees. The review aims at establishing the trends in factors influencing the mental health of the refugees and the barriers preventing the uptake of associated services to inform policy considerations for ensuring effective service delivery. The literature search utilized different terms namely refugee challenges, mental health, stressors, traumatic events, psychological distress, immigration challenges. The literature search was further limited to include articles written in English published after 2002 providing refugee accounts in Australia.
The databases utilized in the literature search include Google Scholar, MEDLINE, and CINAHL. The literature search was further narrowed to mental health services provided to refugees in Australia. The search yielded fifteen articles that became part of the present review. The selection of the articles depended on their relevance to the topic of interest and their ability to answer the study question. Schweitzer, R. D., Brough, M., Vromans, L., & Asic-Kobe, M.
(2011). The mental health of newly arrived Burmese refugees in Australia: contributions of pre-migration and post-migration experience. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 45(4), 299– 307. The study aimed at documenting the mental health status of refugees of Burmese backgrounds arriving in Australia. Also, the authors examined the role of gender as well as the circumstances before and after migration in predicting the mental health outcomes of the refugees. They obtained data from a sample of 70 refugees using structured interviews. The tools used for data collection included a demographic questionnaire, the Hopkins Symptoms Checklist, and the Post-migration Living Difficulties Checklist. They assessed the trauma experienced before and after migration, living difficulties, anxiety, depression, traumatization, and somatization symptoms.
The researchers established that the exposure of the refugees to traumatic situations before migration as well as the harsh living conditions following migration contributed to symptoms of anxiety, traumatization, and somatization. The sample used in this study was small considering a large number of Burmese refugees according to national reports. However, the authors' strong arguments regarding the impact of pre- and post-migration experiences on the mental health of refugees are directly in line with my study topic thus contributing to improving the care of refugees. Hollifield, M., Warner, T.
D., Lian, N., Krakow, B., Jenkins, J. H., Kesler, J., … Westermeyer, J. (2002). Measuring trauma and health status in refugees: a critical review. Jama, 288(5), 611– 621. The authors posited that refugees experience traumatic situations leading to significant health problems thus undermining their mental health.
Abdelkerim, A. A., & Grace, M. (2012). Challenges to employment in newly emerging African communities in Australia: A review of the literature. Australian Social Work, 65(1), 104–119. Retrieved from: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/0312407X.2011.616958
Bogic, M., Njoku, A., & Priebe, S. (2015). The long-term mental health of war-refugees: a systematic literature review. BMC International Health and Human Rights, 15(1), 29. Retrieved from https://bmcinthealthhumrights.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12914-015-0064-9
Bronstein, I., & Montgomery, P. (2011). Psychological distress in refugee children: a systematic review. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 14(1), 44–56. Retrieved from https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10567-010-0081-0
Fazel, M., Wheeler, J., & Danesh, J. (2005). Prevalence of serious mental disorder in 7000 refugees resettled in western countries: a systematic review. The Lancet, 365(9467), 1309–1314. Retrieved from https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10567-010-0081-0
Flatau, P., Smith, J., Carson, G., Miller, J., Burvill, A., & Brand, R. (2015). The housing and homelessness journeys of refugees in Australia. Melbourne: Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute. Retrieved from http://www.ahuri.edu.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0026/5759/AHURI_Final_Report_No256_The-housing-and-homelessness-journeys-of-refugees-in-Australia.pdf
Hollifield, M., Warner, T. D., Lian, N., Krakow, B., Jenkins, J. H., Kesler, J., … Westermeyer, J. (2002). Measuring trauma and health status in refugees: a critical review. Jama, 288(5), 611–621. Retrieved from http://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/article-abstract/195170
Kirmayer, L. J., Narasiah, L., Munoz, M., Rashid, M., Ryder, A. G., Guzder, J., … Pottie, K. (2011). Common mental health problems in immigrants and refugees: general approach in primary care. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 183(12), E959–E967. Retrieved from http://www.cmaj.ca/content/183/12/E959.short
Martin, S., Steel, Z., Coello, M., Aroche, J., Silove, D. M., Brooks, R., & others. (2006). A comparison of the mental health of refugees with temporary versus permanent protection visas. Medical Journal of Australia, 185(7), 357. Retrieved from https://www.mja.com.au/journal/2006/185/7/comparison-mental-health-refugees-temporary-versus-permanent-protection-visas?inline=true
Omeri, A., Lennings, C., & Raymond, L. (2006). Beyond asylum: implications for nursing and health care delivery for Afghan refugees in Australia. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 17(1), 30–39. Retrieved from http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/1043659605281973
Robjant, K., Hassan, R., & Katona, C. (2009). Mental health implications of detaining asylum seekers: systematic review. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 194(4), 306–312. Retrieved from http://bjp.rcpsych.org/content/194/4/306.short
Schweitzer, R. D., Brough, M., Vromans, L., & Asic-Kobe, M. (2011). Mental health of newly arrived Burmese refugees in Australia: contributions of pre-migration and post-migration experience. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 45(4), 299–307. Retrieved from http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.3109/00048674.2010.543412
Sheikh-Mohammed, M., MacIntyre, C. R., Wood, N. J., Leask, J., & Isaacs, D. (2006). Barriers to access to health care for newly resettled sub-Saharan refugees in Australia. Med J Aust, 185(11–12), 594–597. Retrieved from https://www.mja.com.au/journal/2006/185/11/barriers-access-health-care-newly-resettled-sub-saharan-refugees-australia
Silove, D., Steel, Z., Bauman, A., Chey, T., & McFarlane, A. (2007). Trauma, PTSD and the longer-term mental health burden amongst Vietnamese refugees. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 42(6), 467–476. Retrieved from https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00127-007-0194-z
Steel, Z., Momartin, S., Bateman, C., Hafshejani, A., Silove, D. M., Everson, N., … others. (2004). Psychiatric status of asylum seeker families held for a protracted period in a remote detention centre in Australia. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 28(6), 527–536. Retrieved from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1467-842X.2004.tb00042.x/full
Steel, Z., Momartin, S., Silove, D., Coello, M., Aroche, J., & Tay, K. W. (2011). Two year psychosocial and mental health outcomes for refugees subjected to restrictive or supportive immigration policies. Social Science & Medicine, 72(7), 1149–1156. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0277953611000931
Steel, Z., Silove, D., Brooks, R., Momartin, S., Alzuhairi, B., & Susljik, I. N. A. (2006). Impact of immigration detention and temporary protection on the mental health of refugees. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 188(1), 58–64. Retrieved from http://bjp.rcpsych.org/content/188/1/58.short
Steel, Z., Silove, D., Chey, T., Bauman, A., & Phan, T. (2005). Mental disorders, disability and health service use amongst Vietnamese refugees and the host Australian population. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 111(4), 300–309. Retrieved from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1600-0447.2004.00458.x/full