Discuss The Mechanism Of Translation – Admission/Application Essay Example

Discuss the mechanism of translation; include all enzymes and organelles involved for production of transmembrane proteins. Translation is the process which involves initiation, elongation and termination. The onset of translation is with the binding of smaller subunit through complementary bases. The bases are read as triplet by the tRNA which is called the transporter. These triplets are called codons while the tRNA carries anti-codon. The AUG is the initiation codon.
Initiation process begins when the smaller subunit binds with the specific tRNA called N-formyl methionine or fMet. This binds with the initiation codon methionine. The process is followed by the binding of larger subunit of the ribosome and an initiation complex is formed comprising fMET-tRNA at the P site of the ribosome while the A site remains empty. The process of initiation also involves extra proteins known as initiation factors.
The process of elongation involves the formation of peptide bonds, as a result the tRNA in the A site becomes peptidyl RNA and moves to the P site. Thus translocation occurs. A single ribosome involves translocation of 60 nucleotides per seconds.
Termination of the translation is dependent on the occurrence of three stop signals also called nonsense codons at the A site. These stop codons are UAG, UGA and UAA (Web: "Molecular Biology: Translation"). Translation is followed by the destination of protein either to the membrane or as free enzymes to carry out cellular metabolism. The free proteins are synthesized on the free ribosomes while the membranous proteins on endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The polypeptide binds with the molecular chaperone BiP to encourage the folding process within ER. Lumens of the Golgi apparatus and the ER are topologically similar to the cellular surroundings. Thus polypeptide chains are translocated into ER which in turn are translocated to the plasma membrane (Web: "The Endoplasmic Reticulum").
Work Cited
"Molecular Biology Translation". Web. 23 September 2013.
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"The Endoplasmic Reticulum". Web. 23 September 2013.
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